Perform the number of prayers that you are certain you have missed with the intention of obligatory qaḍā and if you want to perform more than that, perform them with the intention of precautionary qaḍā.
None of them is necessary and the verbal declaration of the intention is not permissible as an obligatory precaution.
This person can perform qunūt after rukū‘ and then go for sajdah without rukū‘ and continue the prayer.
1- It is not permitted. 2- It is like the previous issue. 3- Yes, you can ask all religious lawful matters from Allah.
This act is makrūh (abominable) unless this is the only way of having presence of the heart (full concentration).
The time of the morning nāfilah starts before the Fajr prayer , f r o m the Fajr adhan until the appearance of redness in the east, and it is possible to perform that immediately after the night prayer.
The distance between the last house of the departure city and the first house of the destination city should be considered as the distance for prayer to be shortened.
Your going out of your house to the work place and then going to sail from there until reaching the destination are all consider as one travel.
Stand in the direction which is well-known among the Muslims as the direction of the qiblah and that would be enough.
It is not necessary but it is better to correct their mistake.
The Paternal homeland of a person is not considered as the homeland of that person unless he/she stays there continuously for a long time like one year.
Your prayers and fasting should be performed complete in both places.