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«In the name on Allah»
In order to make a decision and do a task, one should first think it over to find the correct way, then consult with experienced persons and after all if he does not have any conclusion, one can do Istikharah. However, it is not allowed to predict the future of a person or a task by Quran
By clicking Istikharah button you choose a verse from the Holy Quran and his eminence’s view on the verse will be displayed
نرم افزار استخاره با توجه به نظرات حضرت آیت الله العظمی مکارم شیرازی (مد ظله العالی )
در این نرم افزار همچون وقتی که خودتان بعد از خواندن دعای استخاره صفحه ای از قرآن را به صورت اتفاقی باز میکنید، با فشار دادن دکمهی «استخاره» نیز به همان شکل به صورت اتفاقی صفحه ای از قرآن را انتخاب میکنید؛
توجه کنید بر خلاف برخی نرم افزار ها که تنها بین تعداد محدودی از آیات امکان انتخاب وجود دارد (302 آیه) و کل قرآن موجود نیست، در این نرم افزار تمام قرآن موجود است و شما در حقیقت در بین تمامی صفحات، صفحهای را انتخاب میکنید.
در واقع خودتان استخاره گرفته اید نه دیگری، همانطور که در مفاتیح هم آمده است، اگر کسی خودش استخاره بگیرد بهتر از آن است که دیگری برای او این کار را انجام دهد.
حالا باید جواب استخارهی خود را از اولین آیهی صفحهی سمت راست بدست آورید و ما در این نرم افزار نظر حضرت آیت الله العظمی مکارم شیرازی (مد ظله) در مورد همان آیه را به شما نمایش میدهیم؛ چرا که تفسیر یک مرجع فقیه و مفسر قرآن از یک آیه بسیار بهتر از تفسیر خود ماست.
لازم به ذکر است برای استخاره تنها کافیست سه بار صلوات بفرستید و دعاهای مختلفی که آمده است همه مستحب هستند.
The expressive evidence for guardianship
Prepared by Islamic Sciences and Researches Group– Qom
In the open political climate recently established in the country, a number of Sunnite Molavi in the southern parts of the country, have started their offence to the Shiite beliefs (state’s official school) in contrary to their commitment on the issue of solidarity, an example of which is the article with the title of “The legendary of martyrdom of Hazrat Zahra (a.s.)”, which was published in the “Nedaye Islam” magazine (licensed by Ministry of Guidance), and we replied it decisively.
Now, we came to know that one of the other southern Sunnite Molavi has stated provocative utterances in respect to “Ghadir tradition”, which is in contradiction with the facts existing in the tradition, history and biography books. It persuaded us to explain Ghadir tradition clearly and concisely, and let the public opinion to judge, to see what is the conclusion of offence to the state’s official school? And how long we shall be silent?!
You may have heard the name of Ghadir. It is a territory between Mecca and Medina, near Johfeh, which is 200 km far from Mecca. It is a cross road, where the pilgrims of different parts separate from each other:
a road towards Medina, northward
a road towards Iraq, eastward
a road towards Egypt, westward
a road towards Yemen, southward
Today, it is an abandoned area, but once it was the witness of one the greatest events in the Islamic history, that is, the day of appointment of Ali (a.s.) as the successor of Prophet (s.a.w.a.) (on eighteenth of Zelhejjah, 10th A.H.).
Although for political purposes, the caliphs have tried to erase the memory of this great historical event, and now too, some of the fanatic individuals try to disappear or make it fade for some reasons, nevertheless, the dimensions of this event is too extensive in history, tradition and Arab literature, to be erased, covered or forgotten.
In the present booklet, you will find the documents and references in this respect, so that you will be amazed, and may ask yourself that how such a lot of proofs and evidences could be covered or neglected?!
We hope these logical analyses and evidences derived from the Sunnite references to be the means of approaching the lines of world Moslems, and the facts which were previously left unattended to be taken into precise consideration, specially by the young generation.
Islamic Sciences and Researches Group – Qom
The expressive evidence for guardianship
Ghadir tradition is one of the conclusive evidences for the immediate guardianship and caliphate of Ali (a.s.) after the Prophet (s.a.w.a.), and the researchers render a special importance to it.
Unfortunately, those who prejudice with regard to his guardianship, once accept validity of the tradition, and express doubt for its implication, and once question about its authenticity.
For clarification of different aspects of this tradition, it is necessary to talk about both groups with authentic and valid evidences:
Background of Ghadir
The “Farewell pilgrimage” ceremony was completed in the last month of the 10th A.H. The Moslems learned pilgrimage activities from the Prophet (s.a.w.a.), and then, Prophet (s.a.w.a.) decided to leave Mecca to Medina. He instructed for departure. When the caravan reached an area called “Rabegh”(1), which is three miles far from Johfeh (2), Gabriel, the inspiration angel, revealed in a point called “Ghadir Khom”, and addressed the Prophet (s.a.w.a.) with the following verse:
يا ايها الرسول بلغ ما انزل اليک من ربک و ان لم تفعل فما بلغت رسالته و الله يعصمک من الناس (3)
O Messenger, deliver that which has been sent down to thee from thy Lord; for if thou dost not, thou wilt not have delivered His Message. God will protect three from men.
The tone of verse indicates that God has assigned Prophet (s.a.w.a.) a critical mission, which equals with his prophetic mission, and caused despair of the Islam enemies. Is any critical mission more important than appointment of Ali (a.s.) to the rank of caliphate, guardianship and succession in front of more than hundred thousand people?!
Therefore, he ordered to stop. Those who were ahead of caravan, stopped, and those who were at the back of caravan, joined them. At noon, it was very hot, and a group of people put a part of their mantle on their head and a part under their foot. A shading was made for the Prophet through casting a veil on the tree. He sat on the high point, formed by the camel saddle, and he delivered a sermon with a loud voice, the extract of which follows:
1- Rabegh is now located between Mecca and Medina.
2- It is one of the trysting-places, and in the past, the course of people of Medina, Egypt and Iraq branched there
3- Table sura, verse 67.
Prophet’s (s.a.w.a.) sermon in Ghadir Khom
Praise belongs to God. We seek help from Him, and believe in Him, and trust in Him. We turn to Him for our evil and unrighteous deeds. The Lord, save whom there is no guide. Whoever is guided by Him, there will be no deviator for him. I testify that there is no God, save Him, and Mohammad is his servant and prophet.
O people! Soon, I will die, and leave you. I am responsible and you too!
Then he added: What do you think about me!? (Have I fulfilled my responsibility against you?)
The crowd all said: We testify that you have accomplished your prophetic mission, and endeavored. God may grant you good rewards.
The Prophet (s.a.w.a.) said: Do you testify that the Lord of world is one, and Mohammad is His servant and prophet, and there is no doubt about paradise, hell, the everlasting life in the other world?
All replied: Yes, that is right. We testify!
He added: O people, I leave among you two precious things. I shall see how you treat with my two heritage?!
One stood up and asked loudly: What are these two precious things?!
Prophet (s.a.w.a.) said: One is divine book, one side of which is in the powerful hand of God, and the other is with you. And the next is my Household. God has informed me that these two will never separate!
Beware, O People, do not surpass Quran and my Household. Do not fail to follow both of them. Otherwise, you will perish!
Then, he took Ali’s hand (a.s.), and raised it too high that the armpit of both of them was seen by the people, and introduced him to the people.
He asked: Who is more authorized and rightful to the believers than themselves?
All replied: God and His messenger are more aware.
The Prophet (s.a.w.a.) said: God is my master and I am the master of believers, and I am more authorized and rightful than themselves! Beware, O People!
من کنت مولاه فهذا علي مولاه
Whoever I am his master and authority, this Ali will be his master and authority. (1)
اللهم وال من والاه و عاد من عاداه و احب من احبه و ابغض من ابغضه و انصر من نصره و اخذل من خذله و ادر الحق معه حيث دار.
O God, be friend with whoever is friend with Ali, and be enemy with whoever is an enemy of Ali. Help whoever helps him, and leave whoever leaves him, make him the criteria of right! (2)
If you study the above sermon (3) carefully, there are quick evidences for Imamate of Ali (a.s.) in every phrase of it. (we will explain it soon).
1- The Prophet repeated this phrase for three times to avoid any future mistake!
2- This part of Ghadir tradition, and sometimes its first part, without the second or visa versa, has been mentioned in the following documents:
مسند ابن حنبل: vol. 1, p. 254; تاريخ دمشق: vol. 42, p. 207, 208 & 448; خصائص نسايي: p. 181; المعجم الکبير: vol. 17, p. 39; سنن الترمذي: vol. 5, p. 633; المستدرک علي الصحيحن, vol. 13, p. 135; المعجم الاوسط; vol. 6, p. 95; مسند ابي يعلي, vol. 1, p. 280; المحاسن و المساوئي: p. 41; مناقب خوارزمي: p. 104, and other books.
3- A large group of known Sunnite scholars have narrated this sermon in their books, such as:
مسند احمد: vol. 1, p. 84, 88, 118, 119, 152, 281, 331, 332, 370; سنن ابن ماجه, vol. 1, p. 55, 58; المستدرک علي الصحيحين حاکم نيشابوري, vol. 3, p. 118 & 613; سنن ترمذي, vol. 5, p. 633; فتح الباري, vol. 79, p. 74; تاريخ خطيب بغدادي, vol. 8, p. 290; تاريخ الخلفاء و سيوطي, p. 114, etc.
The eternity of Ghadir event
The Wise God has willed the Ghadir historical event to remain in all ages and centuries, as a live history, attracting the hearts and minds, and the Islamic writers to discuss it in the commentary, history, tradition and theology books, and the religious orators to deliver lectures about it, and call it one of the undeniable virtues of Imam Ali (a.s.).
Not only the orators and lecturers, but also the poets too have been suggested by this event, and have lighted their literary talent through thinking and reflection on it, as well as increasing their loyalty to the owner of guardianship. They have left the best poems in different forms and various languages. (The Late Allameh Amini has mentioned an important part of Ghadir poems in every century of the Islamic history, while describing the attributes of the poets in the eleven volumes of Al-Ghadir book narrated from popular Islamic resources).
In other words, no other historical event in the world, has been noted so much by different classes, including traditionist, commentator, theologian, philosopher, orator, poet, historian and biographer.
One of the reasons for eternity of this tradition, is revelation of two Quranic verses (1) in respect to this event, and since Quran is eternal and everlasting, this historical event too will be never forgotten.
It is noteworthy that referring to the history clarifies that eighteenth of Zelhejjah has been known among Moslems as the Eid Ghadir, so that Ebne Khalkan says about Mostalli Ebne Mostansar: The people paid homage to him on eighteenth of Zelhejjah, Eid Ghadir, 487 A.H. (2), and he writes about Mostansar Bellah Abidi: He passed away twelve nights before the end of Zelhejjah, 487 A.H. It is the same night of eighteenth of Zelhejjah, the night of Eid Ghadir. (3)
It is interesting that Aboureyhan Birouni, in Assarol Baqieh, has called Eid Ghadir one of the feasts, which all Moslems celebrated it. (4)
Not only Ebne Khalkan and Aboureyhan Birouni have called it an Eid, but also Thalebi, one of the other famous Sunnite scholars has called Ghadir one of the popular nights among the Islamic nation. (5)
This Islamic Eid dates back to the time of Prophet (s.a.w.a.), because on that day, the Prophet (s.a.w.a.) instructed the immigrants and helpers, and rather his wives, to go to Ali (a.s.) and congratulate to him for guardianship and Imamate.
Zeid Ebne Arqam says: Aboubakr, Omar, Osman, Talhe and Zobair from among the immigrants were the first who paid homage to Ali (a.s.), but the congratulation and paying homage ceremonies was continued till sunset. (6)
1- The Table sura, verses 67 & 3
2- وفيات الأعيان : vol. 1, p. 60
3- وفيات الأعيان: vol. 2, p. 223
4-ترجمة الآثار الباقيه: 395; الغدير, vol. 1, p. 367.
5-ثمار القلوب: 511
6-Congratulation of Omar Ebne Khattab has been mentioned in many of Sunnite documents, such as, مسند ابن حنبل, vol. 6, p. 401; البداية و النهاية, vol. 5, p. 209; الفصول المهمه ابن صباغ, p. 40; فراءد السمطين, vol. 1, p. 71. Congratulation of Aboubakr, Omar, Osman, Talhe, Zobair and others have been stated in other books: مناقب علي بن ابيطالب, composed by Ahmad Ebne Mohammad Tabari (Alghadir, vol. 1, p. 270).
110 people of tradition narrators
For showing importance of this historical event, it is enough to say that one hundred ten of the Prophet’s (s.a.w.a.) companions have narrated it. (1)
Of course, this does not mean that only these from among the host have narrated the event. Rather, we mean that in the books of Sunnite scholars, the names of one hundred ten people are mentioned.
In the second Islamic century, called the age of followers, eighty nine of them have narrated this tradition.
The narrators of Ghadir tradition, in the next centuries too are among the Sunnite scholars and leaders. Three hundred sixty of them have collected this tradition in their books, and a large group have affirmed its validity and authenticity.
A group of them have not contended with narration of the tradition, and have also written separate books with regards to its documents and contents.
It is strange that the great Islamic historian, Tabari, has composed a book, الولاية في طرق حديث الغدير, and has narrated the tradition based on seventy five chains of transmission from the Prophet!
Ebne Oqdeh Koufi has narrated it from one hundred five people in the, ولايت, essay.
Aboubakr Mohammad Ebne Omar Baghdadi, known as Jamani, has narrated it through twenty five chains of transmission.
1-The documents of these important resources will be mentioned all together.
Sunnite Celebrated People
Ahmad Ebne Hanbal Sheybani
Ebne Hajar Asqalani
Abou Saeid Sajestani
Amir Mohammad Yamani
and Abolerfan Haban
have narrated the tradition through numerous chains of transmission. (1)
Shiite scholars too have composed valuable books regarding this historical event, and have referred to the Sunnite important references, the most comprehensive of which is the historical book, الغدير, composed by the late Ayatullah Amini. (This book has been the main reference in composition of this article).
However, after appointment of Ali (a.s.) as his successor, the Prophet (s.a.w.a.) said:
O People, just now the inspiration angel revealed to me and brought this verse:
اليوم اکملت لکم دينکم و اتممت عليکم نعمتي و رضيت لکم الاسلام ديناَ
Today I have perfected your religion for you, and I have completed My blessing upon you, and I have approved Islam for your religion. (2)
Then the Prophet (s.a.w.a.) said “Allahu Akbar” and added:
I thank God for perfecting His religion, and completing His Blessing, and approving my mission and guardianship and succession of Ali after me.
Then, Prophet (s.a.w.a.) came down, and said Ali (a.s.):
Sit under a tent so that the prominent Islamic chiefs and headmen pay homage and congratulate to you.
First of all, Omar and Aboubakr congratulated to Ali (a.s.) and called him their master!
Hassan Ebne Thabet availed himself of the opportunity and asking permission from the Prophet (s.a.w.a.), versified some poems, and read them before the Prophet (s.a.w.a.). Hereunder we will mention only two couplets of it:
فقال له قم يا علي فانني
رضيتک من بعدي اماماَ و هادي
فمن کنت مولاه فهذا وليه
فکونوا له اتباع صدق موالي
He said Ali: Get up, I s e l e c ted you for succession and guidance of people after me.
Whoever I am his master and authority, this Ali will be his master and authority, and you loving him heartily, follow him. (3)
This tradition has been one of the greatest evidences for excellence of Imam Ali (a.s.) over all the Prophet’s (s.a.w.a.) companions.
Even, in the caliphate council meeting, hold after demise of the second caliph (4), as well as during the caliphate of Osman, and his own caliphate, Imam Ali (a.s.) has argued it. (5)
Moreover, the great personalities, like Hazrat Zahra (a.s.) have repeatedly reasoned the tradition against the opponents and deniers of the high rank of Ali (a.s.). (6)
1-All of these documents are available in the first volume of Alghadir book, which are generally collected from the known Sunnite references.
2-The Table sura, verse 3.
3-The poems of Hassan have been stated in several resources: مناقب خوارزمي, p. 135, مقتل الحسين خوارزمي, vol. 1, p. 47, فرائد السمطين, vol. 1, p. 73 & 74; النور المشتغل, p. 56; المناقب کوثر, vol. 1, p. 118 & 362.
4-This argument has been stated in the following books: مناقب اخطب خوارزمي حنفي, p. 217; فرائد السمطين حمويني, chapter 58; الدر النظيم ابن حاتم شامي, الصواعق المحرقه ابن حجر عسقلاني, p. 75; امالي ابن عقده, p. 7, 212, شرح نهج البلاغه ابن ابي الحديد, vol. 2, p. 61, الاستيعاب ابن عبدالبر, vol. 3, p. 35; تفسير طبري, vol. 3, p. 418 under verse 55, The Table sura.
5-فرائد السمطين, first part, chapter 58; شرح نهج البلاغه ابن ابي الحديد, vol. 1, p. 362; اسد الغابه, vol. 3, p. 307, vol. 5, p. 205; الاصابه ابن حجر عسقلاني, vol. 2, p. 408, vol. 4, p. 80; مسند احمد, vol. 1, p. 84, 88; البداية و النهاية ابن کثير شامي, vol. 5, p. 210, vol. 7, p. 348; مجمع الزوائد هيتمي, vol. 9, p. 106; ذخائر العقبي, p. 67, … (الغدير, p. 163, 164)
6-اسني المطالب شمس الدين شافعي, as per narration of, سخاوي في الضوء اللامع, vol. 9, p. 256; البدر الطالع شوکاني, vol. 2, p. 297; شرح نهج البلاغه ابن ابي الحديد, vol. 2, page 273; مناقب علامه حنفي, p. 130; بلاغات النساء, p. 72; العقد الفريد, vol. 1, p. 162; صبح الاعشي, vol. 1, page 259, مروج الذهب ابن مسعود شافعي, vol. 2, page 49; ينابيع الموده, p. 486.
To whom does the word master and authority (مولي) apply?
The main issue here is the interpretation of concept of master, that while being clear and obvious, it has been unfairly judged. Considering the aforementioned explanation, there would remain no doubt and uncertainty about the authenticity of the tradition, the excuse seekers created doubt and uncertainty about the meaning and concept of tradition, particularly the word
in this tradition, and rather in most cases, has only one meaning, that is, priority and qualification, and in other words, guardianship. Quran has applied the word, مولا, for the concept of guardian and authority.
The word, مولا, has been applied in 18 Quranic verses, 10 of which is concerned with God. It goes without saying that it indicates His authority and guardianship, and only in some few cases, it has been applied for friendship.
Therefore, there shall be no doubt that the word, مولا, primarily means the superior and authority. In Ghadir tradition too, it has the same meaning. In addition, it is accompanied with so many evidences and proofs, clearly proving that it means authority and guardianship.
The evidences certifying this claim
Even supposing that the term, مولا, has lexically various meanings, but there are many evidences and proofs in the Ghadir tradition and this great historical event, removing any ambiguity and conclusive for all.
As we said, on the day of Ghadir historical event, Hassan Ebne Thabet, Prophet’s (s.a.w.a.) poet, asked permission from the Prophet (s.a.w.a.), and versified Prophet’s (s.a.w.a.) utterance. This eloquent and fluent poet, having command on Arabic language, applied Imam and guide for the word, مولي, and said:
فقال له: قم يا علي فانني
رضيتک من بعدي اماماَ و هادي
He said Ali: Get up, I s e l e c ted you for succession and guidance of people after me. (1)
As it is clear, he had not understood the word, مولي, in the Prophet’s (s.a.w.a.) utterance, anything save the rank of Imamate, leadership and guardianship of the nation, while he knew well Arabic terminology and was one of the eloquent Arab poets.
Not only Hassan, the great Arab poet, has understood this concept from the word, مولي, but also other great Islamic poets, most of which have been among the famous Arab poets and literati, and some of them have been the great professors in this language, have understood the same concept which Hassan did, that is, Imamate and leadership of nation!
1-The documents for attribution of these poems to Hassan Ebne Thabet was already mentioned.
Imam Ali (a.s.) in his poems writing to Moavieh regarding Ghadir tradition says:
و اوجب لي ولايته عليکم
رسول الله يوم غدير خم
God’s Prophet (s.a.w.a.) enjoined my guardianship for you on the day of Ghadir Khom. (1)
Who can interpret the tradition and explain for us what the God’s Prophet (s.a.w.a.) meant by, ولايت, on the Ghadir day, better than Imam? Does this interpretation show not that as all present in the Ghadir event believe, it does not imply anything save social leadership and headship?
1-The Late Allameh Amini, in vol. 2 of Alghadir, p. 25-30, has narrated this poems with other couplets from 11 of Shiite and 26 of Sunnite scholars.
Before stating the phrase, من کنت مولاه
, the Prophet asked:
الست اولي بکم من انفسکم؟
Am I not more authorized and rightful to you than yourselves?
In the above phrase, Prophet (s.a.w.a.) has applied
اولي به نفس
and has asked all people for confession to his authority over them. Then, he immediately said:
من کنت مولاه فهذا علي مولاه
Whoever I am his master and authority, this Ali will be his master and authority.
What is the purpose of conjunction in these two phrases? Is it anything save proving the same rank of Prophet (s.a.w.a.) as per the text of Quran, for Ali (a.s.)? The only difference is that he is the prophet and Ali is Imam. On this account, it is interpreted as:
Whoever I am his master and authority, this Ali will be his master and authority. (1)
If the Prophet (s.a.w.a.) meant something else, there was no reason for asking people’s confession for his mastership and authority. It is very unfair if one neglects this message of Prophet (s.a.w.a.), and does not take into account such obvious evidence.
1-Allameh Amini has narrated the phrase, الست اولي بکم من انفسکم, from 64 Islamic traditionists and historians. Refer to vol. 1, p. 371.
The Prophet (s.a.w.a.) asked for people’s confession to three basic Islamic principles and said:
الستم تشهدون ان لا اله الا الله و ان محمداَ عبده و رسوله و ان الجنة حق و النار حق؟
Do you testify that the Lord of world is one, and Mohammad is His servant and prophet, and there is no doubt about paradise, hell?
What did he mean for asking the confession? Does he want to make people’s mind ready to consider the rank and position, which he will later prove for Ali (a.s.), as the previous tenets, and know that confession to his caliphate and guardianship is the same as triple tenets of religion, to which all confess? If the word,
, meant friend and helper, the sentences lose their relation, and the utterances is not firm anymore. Don’t you think so?
At the beginning of his sermon, the Prophet (s.a.w.a.) talks about his death and says:
اني أوشک أن ادعي فاجيب
Soon, I will die. (1)
The phrase indicates that the Prophet (s.a.w.a.) is going to make a decision for the period after himself, and fill the vacancy caused by his demise. What can fill such vacancy, is appointment of a successor, worthy and informed to manage the affairs after him, and nothing else.
If we interpret guardianship to something save caliphate, the logical relation of the Prophet’s (s.a.w.a.) utterances is clearly disturbed, while he is one of the most eloquent and fluent orators. What other clearer evidence could be found for guardianship?
1-Refer to Alghadir, vol. 1, p. 26,27,30,32,333,34,36,47,176. The chain of transmission of this subject from the Sunnite documents, such as: صحيح ترمذي, vol. 2, p. 298; الفصول المهمه ابن صباغ, p. 25; المناقب الثلاثه حافظ ابي الفتوح, p. 19, البداية و النهاية ابن کثير, vol. 5, p. 209, vol. 7, p. 348; الصواعق المحرقه, p. 25; مچمع الزوائد هيتمي, vol. 9, p. 165,…
من کنت مولاه ...
, the Prophet (s.a.w.a.) said:
الله اکبر علي اکمال الدين و اتمام النعمه و رضي الرب برسالتي و الولايه لعلي من بعدي
“Allahu Akbar”, I thank God for perfecting His religion, and completing His Blessing, and approving my mission as well as guardianship and succession of Ali after me.
If he meant friendship and assistance of one of the Moslems, how the God’s religion was perfected, and His blessing was completed through friendship with Ali (a.s.)? More obviously, he says: God approved my mission and guardianship of Ali (a.s.) after me. (1) Are these not clear evidences for the concept of caliphate?
1-The late Allameh Amini has mentioned the documents for this part of tradition in vol. 1, p. 43,165,231,232,233,235, like: الولاية ابن جرير طبري, p. 310; تفسير ابن کثير, vol. 2, p. 14; تفسير الدر المنثور, vol. 2, p. 259; الاتقان, vol. 1, p. 31; مفتاح النجاح بدخشي, p. 220; ما نزل من القرآن في علي, ابونعيم اصفهاني, تاريخ خطيب بغدادي, vol. 4, p. 290; مناقب خوارزمي, p. 80; الخصائص العلويه ابوالفتح نطنزي, p. 43; تذکره سبط بن جوزي, p. 18; فرائد السمطين, chapter 12.
What evidence is more explanatory than congratulation of Omar and Aboubakr, and a large number of the Prophet’s (s.a.w.a.) companions to Ali (a.s.) lasting till the time of sunset prayer, while Omar and Aboubakr were the first of those who congratulated Imam as follows:
هنيئاَ لک يا علي بن ابي طالب اصبحت و أمسيت مولاي و مولي کل مؤمن و مؤمنه
Congratulations to you, O Ali Ebne Abitaleb, you wake up and go to sleep, while you are my guardian, and the guardian of any believer man and woman! (1)
What position did Ali (a.s.) achieve on that day to be worthy of such congratulation? Is any rank, save leadership and caliphate of the Islamic nation that was not officially declared till then, worthy of such congratulation? Friendship and kindness was not a new issue.
1-For information about the documents indicating congratulation of Omar & Aboubakr, refer to Alghadir, vol. 1, p. 270, 283. A part of documents of this tradition was already stated.
If friendship of Ali (a.s.) was meant, it was not necessary to express it in such a hot weather (stopping one hundred thousand caravan, and asking the people to sit on the hot sands in the desert for delivering a lecture)!
Quran had already called all the society’s individuals as brothers, and it says:
انما المؤمنون اخوة
The believers indeed are brothers. (1)
Had Quran not already introduced the believers as friends? Ali (a.s.) too was one of the believers, and there was no need for declaring his friendship. Even if it was expedient to declare his friendship, these preparations and hard conditions were not required. It was possible to be declared in Medina. Surely, the issue has been more important, requiring such exceptional preparations, which were unprecedented in the Prophet’s (s.a.w.a.) life, and it was not repeated anymore.
1-Apartments sura, verse 10.
Now let’s judge!
With such clear evidences, isn’t it strange if someone doubt about the Prophet’s (s.a.w.a.) purpose, that is, caliphate and leadership of Moslems? How do those who doubt, persuade their conscience and what’s their reply to God on the day of resurrection?
Verily, if all Moslems start a new study and review on the Ghadir tradition, free from any prejudice, they will reach desirable conclusions, and it will cause more solidarity among the Moslems.
It is remarkable that some say that the president, has interpreted the word, مولا
, as friendship, in one of his elective lectures, while he is one of the Shiite clergymen.
It is not true, because soon later, for removing any ambiguity and misunderstanding, he clarified in the explanation published in many of dailies as follows:
I shall remark the point, which I mentioned in one of my recent lectures about the Ghadir event, that is, kindness and affection has a critical role in the God’s religion, and particularly in the social life of the Islamic society. However, considering the time, place and the homage paid to Ali (a.s.) on the same day, by the word, مولي, in the phrase, من کنت مولاه فهذا علي مولاه, the Prophet (s.a.w.a.) surely meant guardianship and leadership of the Islamic society, and as we Shiite believe, and as per the authentic historical narration after demise of Prophet (s.a.w.a.), this concept has been accepted and approved by the Prophet’s (s.a.w.a.) great companions. On the other hand, the word, مولي, conveys a special message and has been s e l e c ted knowingly. Surely the Prophet could apply other phrases such as, امير، قائد، سلطان, but the word, مولي, includes friendship and kindness (one of the bases of desirable Islamic government) in addition to guardianship. Today, our nation wants to enjoy a free and improved society, as well as growth with spirituality, morality and kindness.
Islamic Sciences & Researches Group – Qom
Three meaningful traditions!
1- Who is right?
Omme Salameh and Ayesheh, Prophet’s (s.a.w.a.) wives say: We heard from the Prophet (s.a.w.a.):
علي مع الحق و الحق مع علي لن يفترقا حتي يردا علي الحوض
Ali is with right, and right is with Ali, they do not separate each other until appearing to me besides the Pond of Abundance.
This tradition has been narrated in many of Sunnite popular resources. Allameh Amini has mentioned these resources exactly in the third volume of Alghadir. (1)
The famous Sunnite commentator, Fakhr Razi, in his commentary book, under the Opening sura says: Ali Ebne Abitaleb (a.s.) recited
loudly, and it has been proved by repeated transmission. Whoever follows Ali in his religion, he has been guided, as the Prophet (s.a.w.a.) says:
اللهم ادر الحق مع علي حيث دار
O God, make him the criteria of right, to wherever he turns. (28)
Pay attention. It says the right turns to wherever he turns!
1-Mohammad Ebne Abibakr, Abouzar, Abou Saeid Khadri, and others have narrated this tradition from the Prophet (s.a.w.a.). (Refer to vol. 3, Alghadir).
28-تفسير کبير, vol. 1, p. 205.
2- Pledge of brotherhood
A group of known companions of the Prophet (s.a.w.a.) have narrated following tradition from the Prophet (s.a.w.a.):
آخي رسول الله (صلي الله عليه و آله) بين اصحابه فاخي بين ابي بکر و عمر، و فلان و فلان، فجاء علي (رضي الله عنه) فقال آخيت بين اصحابک و لم تواخ بيني و بين احد؟! فقال رسول الله (صلي الله عليه و آله) انت اخي في الدنيا و الآخرة.
The Prophet (s.a.w.a.) set the pledge of brotherhood between his companions, such as between Omar and Aboubakr, and the others (those in the same rank). Then, Ali (a.s.) came to him and said: You set the pledge of brotherhood for all, but not between anyone and me? The Prophet (s.a.w.a.) said: You are my brother in the world and hereafter.
The same content with similar phrases has been stated in 49 other cases. These traditions are generally found in the Sunnite resources! (1)
Isn’t the pledge of brotherhood between Ali and the Prophet (s.a.w.a.) a proof for his excellence and superiority to the all nation? Is it possible to prefer someone to the superior?
1-Allameh Amini has stated all of these fifty traditions, and its documents and resources in details in the third volume of Alghadir.
3- The sole means of salvation
Keeping in hand the door of Kabah, Abouzar called:
من عرفني (فقد عرفني) و من لم يعرفني فانا ابوذر، سمعت النبي (صلي الله عليه و آله) يقول: مثل اهل بيتي فيکم مثل سفينة نوح، من رکبها نجي و من تخلف عنها غرق
Whoever knows me, he knows, and whoever doesn’t know me, may know that I am abouzar. I heard from the Prophet (s.a.w.a.): The similitude of my Household is like that of Noah ship. Whoever enters it, is saved, and whoever leaves it, will be drowned.
The references of the above tradition are very numerous, to which will be referred in the footnote. (1)
When Noah typhoon happened on the earth, there was no salvation means, save Noah ship. Even the high mountains could not deliver Noah’s son who had associated with the evil-doers.
As per the saying of the Prophet (s.a.w.a.), is there any way for salvation of the nation after him, save resorting to the Household (a.s.)?
1-مستدرک حاکم, vol. 2, p. 150, (published in Heydarabad), and at least 30 other books from the Sunnite known resources, have narrated it.
In the Name of Allah
The Philosophy of Martyrdom
by Grand Ayatollah Makarem Shirazi
Why Hussein (a.s.) Is Not Being Forgotten?
The importance of the history of life of Imam Hussein (also Husayn) (a.s.) which has been converted to one of most sensational epics of human history is not only because of arousing most powerful waves of sensations of millions of people around itself every year and creates a ceremony which is more sensational than other ceremonies, but its importance is mostly because that: It has no “motive” other than pure religious and humanly and popular sensations and feelings and this magnificent ceremony that observes in respect and commemoration of this historical incident has no need to preliminaries and advertisements and it is unexampled in its kind in this aspect.
Most of us know this truth, but the point which has not been truly cleared for lot of people (especially non-Muslim thinkers) yet and still is remained like a puzzle in their minds is that:
Why is this historical incident which has several similar examples in “quantity and quality” emphasized so much? Why does the ceremony which is observed in respect and commemoration of this memory set up more magnificent and more sensational from the last year?
Why today that there is no sign of “Umavi (related to Umayya) party” and their companions and heroes of this incident must have been forgotten, the incident of Karbala has become eternal?!
The answer to this question should be sought among the main motives of this revolution; we assume that analyzing this matter is not so hard and complicated for persons who are familiar with the history of Islam.
In more clear way, the bloody incident of Karbala is not a chart of a battle between two political competitors for achieving the throne of leadership or estates or lands.
Also, this incident has not been emanated from the explosion of hatreds of two hostile tribes which begins for gaining tribal privileges.
In fact, this incident is a clear scene of the battle between two doctrines related to individuals and beliefs that its blazing fire has not been extinguished during the adventurous history of mankind, from the farthest times to today; this fight is the continue of the fight of all prophets and reformer men of the world and in other hand it is the continue of the battles “Badr and Ahzab”.
We all know that when prophet of Islam (s.a.) arose as the leader of an intellectual and social revolution, for saving the mankind from all kinds of idolatry and superstitions and saving people from the claws of ignorance and oppression and collected the oppressed and truth-wanting groups of people who were the most important elements of evolution around himself, at this time oppositions of this reforming movement who were rich idolaters and usurious persons pf Mecca as their heads used all of their forces for repressing this voice of freedom and creativity of these anti-Islamic acts was in hands of “Umavi party” and their leader Abu Suffian.
But at the end their organization came to dissolution and kneed in front of magnificence of amazing influence of Islam.
Obviously, this dissolution was not in the meaning of their annihilation and deracination, but it considered as a starting point in their lives, which means they converted their apparent and explicit anti-Islamic acts into gradual and hidden acts, which is the program of any obstinate, weak and defeated enemy, and waited for an opportunity.
Bani Umayya tried to create a reactionary movement and bringing back people to the time of before Islam after the departure of Prophet (s.a.) in order to penetrate in any leading Islamic system and as far as Muslims went farther than the time of Prophet (s.a.) they saw condition more favorable.
Especially, some of “traditions of ignorance” which revived by other than Bani Umayya due to several reasons prepared conditions for an “ignorant revolution”.
1- The matter of racism that Islam had red lined that revived again by some of caliphs and “Arab” race gain superiority to “Mawali” (non-Arab).
2-Different discriminations appeared which was not compatible with the soul of Islam in anyway and “Bait Al-Mal” that had prorated evenly between Muslims converted into another shape and some inappropriate privileges had gave to some persons and privileges of different classes of people revived again.
3- Places and position that had been gave to people according to their abilities and scientific, moral and spiritual values had shared between the relatives of some of caliphs.
During these changes, “Muaviya” son of Abu Suffian found his way into the Islamic government and gained the governorship of one of most important Islamic regions (Shaam) and from that place flattened the road for conquering the Islamic government and reviving all traditions of ignorance by assistance of remaining persons of parties of ignorance.
This wave was so much strong that got a pure man like Ali (a.s.) busy during all the time of caliphate to itself.
The appearance of this anti-Islamic movement was so much apparent that even their leaders were not able to hide that.
If Abu Suffian says that historical sentence with complete obscenity when he was transferring the caliphate to Bani Umayya and Bani Marwan:
“O Bani Umayya! Try and steal the ball of leadership from the field (and pass it to each other); I swear to the thing which I swear to there is no heaven and hell existed! (And the rise of Mohammad had been a political movement)”.
And if “Muaviya” says in his sermon in Kufa after dominating Iraq that:
“I have not come for you to perform prayer and fasting, I have come to rule you; anyone who opposes me I will destroy him!”
And if Yazid says when he is watching the heads of freemen who drank the juice of martyrdom in Karbala that:
“If my ancestors who had been killed in the filed of Badr were here to see my revenge scene from Bani Hashim …!”
All these were proofs of the nature of this “reactionary and anti-Islamic” movement and as it advanced, it became more apparent and severe.
Could Imam Hussein (a.s.) keep silence and stay calm against this great danger which was threatening dear Islam and was raised to its top in the time of “Yazid”? Did Allah and Prophet (s.a.) and all pure arms which had made him grow want that?
Didn’t he have to break the deadly silence which was dominating the Islamic society by an extraordinary devotion and absolute self sacrifice, and show the evil movement of this party of ignorance from behind the curtains of propagandas of “Bani Umayya” and write shining lines on the forehead of history Islam with his pure blood in order that an eternal and sensational epic remains for future?
Yes, Hussein (a.s.) did this and performed his great and historical duty for Islam and change the way of the history of Islam. He destroyed the anti-Islamic cabals of Umavi party and neutralized their last tyrannical efforts.
This is the real feature of rise of Hussein (a.s.) and it clears from this point that why the name and history of Imam Hussein (a.s.) is not being forgotten. He has not been belonged to one age and one century and one time, but he and his goal are eternal.
He drank the juice of martyrdom in the way of truth and justice and freedom, in the way of Allah and Islam, in the way of freeing humankind and reviving human values; Do these concepts ever becoming old and forgotten? No… Never …!
Who Did Win?
Did Bani Umayya and their cruel and secularist soldiers win in this great fight? Or did Imam Hussein (a.s.) and his devoting companions win that who sacrificed all that they have in the way of love of truth and purity and for Allah?!
Noticing to the real meaning of “victory” and “defeat” answers this question: Victory is not the matter of returning safe from the battlefield or destroying the enemy, but victory is achieving the “goal” and preventing enemy from reaching his goal.
By noticing to this meaning, the final result of this bloody fight clears completely. It is true that Hussein (a.s.) and his loyal companions drank the juice of martyrdom after a heroic battle, but they achieved their sacred goal completely from this glorious martyrdom.
The goal was to reveal the nature of reactionary and anti-Islamic “Umavi” movement and weak the public thoughts of Muslims up in order that they get informed about the cabals of these remainents of age of ignorance and residuals of age of paganism and idolatry, which had been achieved successfully.
They finally cut the roots of oppression tree of “Bani Umayya” and removed the evil and disgraceful domination of that usurper government over Muslims which its pride and honor was to revive the traditions of ignorance and corruption and oppression by preparing the preliminaries of extinction of them.
“Yazid” government showed its real face to all people by killing superior men of the dynasty of Prophet (s.a.) especially Imam Hussein (a.s.) the great leader of Islam and the beloved son of Prophet (s.a.), and announced the disgrace of themselves, the claimants of succession of Prophet (s.a.) everywhere.
And this is not strange that we see the motto of “revenge of these martyrs” or “الرضا لآل محمّد” in all revolutions and evolutions which took place after the incident of Karbala that continued until the time of Bani Abbas who used this matter for gaining the power and reaching the governorship and after that chose the way of oppression.
What a victory more than this which they not only achieved their goal, but they became examples of free persons of the world.
Why Do We Mourn?!
They say that if Imam Hussein (a.s.) won, so why don’t we celebrate? Why do we cry? Is this much of crying appropriate for that great victory?
Those who arises this objection, do not know the “philosophy of mourning” and mistake it with cries of contempt.
“Cry” and flowing of tear d r o ps from “eye” which is the gate of the heart of a human has four kinds:
1- Cries of Delight
Cry of a mother at the moment of finding his beloved children after being lost for some years, or cry of happiness of a lover who meets her lover after a lifetime of deprivation are cries of delight.
Lots of parts of epic of Karbala are delightful and sensational and it follows with the flood of tears of delight flows from the eyes of hearer because of those much of braveries, devotions, courage, freedom, and fiery speeches of men and women who were apparently captives; is this cry a proof of defeat?
2- Emotional Cries
The thing that is inside the chest of a human is “heart” and not a piece of “stone”! And this heart which draws the emotional waves of humans vibrates by watching the scene of an orphan child who dies in the arms of his mother waiting for his father to return home and draws the lines of these waves on the face by flowing tears and show that it is a living and full of humanly emotions heart.
If a heart beats by hearing the incident of dying an infant in the arms of his father and his agony in the flood of his blood in the incident of Karbala and throw its fiery sparks out as d r o ps of tears, is this a sign of weakness and inability or the proof of awareness that full of emotions heart?!
3- Cry of Conjunction of Goals
Sometimes d r o ps of tears show the goals; maybe those who want to say that they accompany the belief of Imam Hussein (a.s.) and are compatible with his goal and follow his sect and doctrine express these matters by fiery mottos or by poems and epics; but sometime they might have been made up; but a person who sends out a d r o p of tear from inside the heart by hearing this heartrending incident expresses this truth more truthfully. This d r o p of tear is the announcement of loyalty to the sacred goals of companions of Imam Hussein (a.s.) and conjunction of heart and soul with them and the announcement of fight with idolatry, oppression, and expressing the hatred from impurities. Is this kind of cry possible without the knowledge about his pure goals?
4- Cry of Contempt
This is the cry of weak and disabled persons who have failed to achieve their goals and see no more soul or courage for advancement in themselves; they sit down and start crying because of their contempt.
Never cry like this for Imam Hussein (a.s.) because he hates this kind of cry; if you cry it should be the cry of delight, emotions or conjunction of goals.
But more important of mourning, is familiarity with the thought of Imam Hussein (a.s.) and his companions and his sect and doctrine, and practical conjunction with the goals of his holiness and being pure and living pure and thinking right and acting correct.
In the Name of Allah
Attack to the House of Afflatus!
by Islamic Studies Group
Recently, a person unknown of history of Islam in Sistan and Baluchestan region has written an article about the honorable daughter of Prophet (s.a.) and named it “Legend of Martyrdom of Fatima Zahra (a.s.)”. This person wanted to deny her martyrdom and disrespect which had done to her after expressing her superiorities.
According to the fact that a part of this article is clear falsification of history of Islam, we decided to write about this falsification and saying some parts of these truths in order to prove that martyrdom of Lady of Islam is an undeniable fact and if they didn’t began such a discussion, we did not follow that in these conditions.
Contents of our expressions in this article are as follows:
1-Infallibly of Zahra (a.s.) in the words of Prophet (s.a.).
2-Respect to the house of her holiness in Quran and tradition.
3-Desecration of her house after the departure of her superior father.
We hope that by explaining these triple points, author of that article respects to the truth and repents from his act and began to compensate what he had done.
It is important to know that all matters written here are taken from famous Sonni resources.
1- Infallibly of Zahra (a.s.) in the words of Prophet (s.a.).
Honorable daughter of Prophet (s.a.) has eminent rank. Words of holy prophet (s.a.) about his daughter tell her infallibly and innocence. He says about her:
فاطمه بضعة منّي فمن أغضبها أغضبني1
Fatima is a part of my body, anyone who made her angry, has made me angry.
It is an obvious matter that making Prophet (s.a.) angry is equal to annoying and disturbing him and the penalty of such a person has been said in holy Quran as follows:
والّذين يؤذون رسول الله لهم عذابٌ أليم
” (Tawba Sura, verse 61).
“And those how annoy prophet of Allah then there is a painful penalty for them”.
What proof more can be more reliable for her infallibly than this expression from Prophet (s.a.) who says in another Hadith that her satisfaction is the reason of satisfaction of Allah and her anger caused the anger of Allah.
يا فاطمة انّ الله يغضب لغضبک و يرضي لرضاک2
“Fatima! Indeed Allah will be angry with your anger and he will be satisfied with your satisfaction”.
According to such an eminence, she is the lady of all women of the world and Prophet says about him:
يا فاطمة! ألا ترضين أن تکون سيّدة نساء العالمين و سيّدة نساء هذه الأمّة و سيّدة نساء المؤمنين؟”3
“Fatima! Aren’t you satisfied of this superiority which Allah has given to you to be the lady of women of both worlds and the lady of women of this nation and the lady of believer women?”
1- Fath Albari in the explanation of Sahih of Bokhari: 84/7 and also Bokhari has mentioned this in the section of signs of prophecy, vol. 6, page 491 and the ending sections of Maghazi, vol. 8, page 110.
2- Mustadrak of Haakem: 154/3; Majma’ Al-Zawa’ed: 203/9 and Haakem mentions Ahadith in order to fulfill the conditions which Bokhari and Muslims considered necessary to prove a Hadith.
3- Mustadrak of Haakem: 156/3.
2- Respect to the house of her holiness in Quran and tradition.
Hadith tellers remind that when the holy verse
في بيوت أذن الله أن ترفع و يذکر فيها اسمه 1
(Noor Sura, verse 36) descended to Prophet (s.a.), he recited this verse in mosque, and at that time a person stood up and said:
Eminent Prophet! What is the purpose of “بيوت” (houses) with such a high importance?
Prophet (s.a.) answered: Houses of prophets!
At that time Abu Bakr stood up and, while he was pointing to the house of Ali and Fatima (a.s.), asked:
Is this house one of those houses?
Prophet (s.a.) answered:
Yes, it is one most eminent of them.(2)
Holy prophet (s.a.) had been going to the house of his daughter for nine months and said hello to her and her dear husband and recited this verse for them:
انّما يريد الله ليذهب عنکم الرّجس أهل البيت و يطهّرکم تطهير”
. (Ahzab Sura, verse 33)(3)
The house which is the center of light of Allah and he has ordered to endearment of that has lots of respect.
Yes, the house which holds the “companions of Kasa (cloak)” in it and Allah talks about it with eminence and superiority should be respectful to all Muslims.
Now, we should see that how much the respect of this house had been observed after the departure of prophet (s.a.)? How they disrespect that house and they confessed to this truth themselves? Who were these people who desecrated this house and what was their goal?
1- (The light of Allah) is in houses that Allah has permitted their dignity to be raised and his name recites in them.
2- قرأ رسول الله هذه الآية (فى بيوت أذن الله أن ترفع و يذکر فيها اسمه» فقام إليه رجل: فقال: أي بيوت هذه يا رسول الله(صلى الله عليه وآله)؟ قال: بيوت الأنبياء، فقام إليه أبوبکر، فقال: يا رسول الله(صلى الله عليه وآله): أ هذا البيت منها، ـ مشيراً إلى بيت علي و فاطمة(عليهما السلام) ـ قال: نعم، من أفاضلها.
(Al-Dorr Al-Manthoor: 230/6; Explanation of Noor Sura, Rooh Al-Ma’aani: 174/18)
3- Dorr Al-Manthoor: 606/6.
3- Desecration of the house of her holiness!
Yes, with all these emphasized recommendations, unfortunately some people ignore the respect of that house and desecrated it, and this is not an issue which can be hid.
We quoted some text exactly the same as they are in Sonni books in order to clear the fact that desecration of house of Zahra (a.s.) is a historical incident and it is not a legend!! And while it was a custom to censor the superiorities in the age of first caliphs, but as “the truthfulness of a thing is its guardian” this historical fact has been remained safe in historical and Hadith books and we observe the sequence of times in quoting the resources from the beginning centuries to the contemporary authors.
1- Ibn Abi Shiba and the book “Musannaf”
Abu Bakr ibn Abi Shiba (159-235), author of the book “AL-Musannaf”, quotes with reliable evidence that:
انّه حين بويع لأبيبکر بعد رسول الله (صلى الله عليه وآله) کان علي و الزبير يدخلان على فاطمة بنت رسول الله، فيشاورونها و يرتجعون في أمرهم.
فلما بلغ ذلک عمر بن الخطاب خرج حتى دخل على فاطمة، فقال: يا بنت رسول الله (صلى الله عليه وآله) و الله ما أحد أحبَّ إلينا من أبيک و ما من أحد أحب إلينا بعد أبيک منک، و أيم الله ما ذاک بمانعي إن اجتمع هؤلاء النفر عندک أن امرتهم أن يحرق عليهم البيت.
قال: فلما خرج عمر جاؤوها، فقالت: تعلمون انّ عمر قدجاءَني، و قد حلف بالله لئن عدتم ليُحرقنّ عليکم البيت، و أيم الله لَيمضين لما حلف عليه.7
When people accepted Abu Baker as their caliph, Ali (a.s.) and Zubayr were discussing and consulting in the house of Fatima (a.s.), and this news had been reached Omar ibn Khattab. He came to the house of Fatima (a.s.) and said: Daughter of prophet of Allah (a.s.)! The dearest person for us is your father and after his it is you; but I swear to Allah that this affection cannot prevent from ordering to burn the house down if these people get together again in your house.
He said these words and leave there. When Ali (a.s.) and Zubayr returned home, honorable daughter of Prophet (s.a.) told them: Omar came to me and swore to Allah to burn this house on you if your congregation repeats. Swear to Allah! He will do the thing that he has sworn!(1)
We reminded that this incident has been quoted in the book “Al-Musannaf” with reliable evidence.
1- Musannaf of Ibn Abi Shiba: 572.8, the book Al-Maghazi.
2) Balazari and the book “Ansab Al-Ashraf”
Ahmad ibn Yahya Jaber Baghdadi Balazari (died 270), famous author and owner of great history, quotes this incident in the book “Ansab Al-Ashraf” as follows:
انّ أبابکر أرسل إلى علىّ يريد البيعة فلم يبايع، فجاء عمر و معه فتيلة! فتلقته فاطمة على الباب.
فقالت فاطمة: يابن الخطاب، أتراک محرقاً علىّ بابي؟ قال: نعم، و ذلک أقوى فيما جاء به أبوک ...1
Abu Bakr sent for Ali (a.s.) in order to take his pledge of allegiance and Ali (a.s.) refused. Then Omar went with a fuse and met Fatima (a.s.) at the doorway of the house; Fatima (a.s.) said: Son of Khattab! I see that you are intending to burn my house?! Omar said: Yes, this act is for helping the thing that your father has been chosen for!!
3) Ibn Qutayba and the book “Al-Imama wa Al-Siasa”
Famous historian Abdullah ibn Muslim ibn Qutayba Dinawaree (212-276) is one of the leaders of literature and hard working author in the field of Islamic history. He is the author of the books “
تأويل مختلف الحديث
and … .(2) He writes in the book “Al-Imama wa Al-Siasa”:
انّ أبابکر رضي الله عنه تفقد قوماً تخلّقوا عن بيعته عند علي کرم الله وجهه فبعث إليهم عمر فجاء فناداهم و هم في دار علي، فأبوا أن يخرجوا فدعا بالحطب و قال: والّذي نفس عمر بيده لتخرجن أو لاحرقنها على من فيها، فقيل له: يا أبا حفص انّ فيها فاطمة فقال، و إن!!(3)
Abu Bakr asked about the absence of those who had refused to give him the pledge of allegiance and had congregated in the house of Ali (a.s.) and sent Omar for them. He went to the house of Ali (a.s.) and called them to exit the house and they ignored him. At that time Omar asked for firewood and said: Swear to the God who has the life of Omar in his hands, exit the house or I’ll burn it on you. A man told Omar: O Aba Hafs (his nickname)! There is Fatima (a.s.), the daughter of Prophet (s.a.) in this house. He said: So what!!
Ibn Qutayba has written the rest of this story more plaintive and painful. He says:
ثمّ قام عمر فمشى معه جماعة حتى أتوا فاطمة فدقّوا الباب فلمّا سمعت أصواتهم نادت بأعلى صوتها يا أبتاه رسول الله ماذا لقينا بعدک من ابن الخطاب، و ابن أبيقحافة فلما سمع القوم صوتها و بکائها انصرفوا. و بقي عمر و معه قوم فأخرجوا علياً فمضوا به إلى أبيبکر فقالوا له بايع، فقال: إن أنا لم أفعل فمه؟ فقالوا: إذاً و الله الّذى لا إله إلاّ هو نضرب عنقک...(4)
Omar accompanying a group came to the house of Fatima (a.s.) and knocked the door. When she heard their voiced, said in a loud voice: O prophet of Allah! What sorrows happened to us after you by son of Khattab and Abi Qahafa (nickname of Abu Bakr). When people who were with Omar heard the voice of Zahra (a.s.) and her cry, returned; but Omar remained with a group and brought out Ali (a.s.) and took him to Abu Bakr. They told him to obey and give the pledge of allegiance, Ali (a.s.) said: What happens if I do not obey? They said: We swear to Allah who there is no one except him; we will cut your head off …
Surely, this part of history is hard and not pleasant for adherents of Sheikhs and therefore they tried to doubt about the reference of this book to Ibn Qutayba, while Ibn Abi Al-Hadid, one of masters of historians, knows this book as one of his writings and continuously quotes from that. Unfortunately, this book has been falsified and some parts of it have been omitted during printing while those parts is available in explanation of Nahjul Balagha, written by Ibn Hadid, quoted from the same book.
“Zarkali” consider this book from writings of Ibn Qutayba in the book “Al-A’laam” and then adds that: some of scholars have opinion in this reference. It means that he refers the doubt to other not himself. Also Elias Sarkis(5) considers this book as one of writings of Ibn Qutayba.
1- Ansab Al-Ashraf: 586/1 printed in Dar al-Maarif, Egypt
2- Al-A’lam by Zarkali: 137/4.
3- Al-Imama wa Al-Siasa: 12, printed in Great Commercial Office, Egypt
4- Al-Imama wa Al-Siasa, page 13.
5- Collection of Arabic Publications: 212/1.
4) Tabari and his history book
Mohammad ibn Jarir Tabari (died 310) quotes the incident of intending to desecration of house of afflatus in his history book as follows:
أتى عمر بن الخطاب منزل علي و فيه طلحة و الزبير و رجال من المهاجرين، فقال و الله لاحرقن عليکم أو لتخرجنّ إلى البيعة، فخرج عليه الزّبير مصلتاً بالسيف فعثر فسقط السيف من يده، فوثبوا عليه فأخذوه.(1)
Omar ibn Khattab came to the house of Ali (a.s.), while a group of immigrants (Mohajirin) were congregated there. He told them: I swear to Allah that I’ll burn the house, except you come out for giving the pledge of allegiance. Zubayr came out while he had a sword in his hand. Suddenly, he slipped and sword fell from his hand to the ground. At this point others attacked him and took his sword.
This part of history tells that taking the pledge of allegiance was done with threatening and intimidation, now what value can have this kind of pledge? Reader should judge.
1- Tabari history book: 443/2, printed in Beirut
5) Ibn Abd Rabboh and the book “Al-Aghd Al-Fareed”
Shahabuddin Ahmad known as “Ibn Abd Rabboh Andalusi”, author of the book “Al-Aghd Al-Fareed” (died 463) has written an explained discussion about the history of Saqifa and writes under the title of those who refused to give the pledge of allegiance to Abu Bakr as follows:
فأمّا علي و العباس و الزبير فقعدوا في بيت فاطمة حتى بعثت إليهم أبوبکر، عمر بن الخطاب ليُخرجهم من بيت فاطمة و قال له: إن أبوا فقاتِلهم، فاقبل بقبس من نار أن يُضرم عليهم الدار، فلقيته فاطمة فقال: يا ابن الخطاب أجئت لتحرق دارنا؟! قال: نعم، أو تدخلوا فيما دخلت فيه الأُمّة!(1)
Ali (a.s.) and Abbas and Zubayr were in the house of Fatima (a.s.) when Abu Bakr sent Omar ibn Khattab in order to take them out of the house and said to him: If they refuse, fight them! And at that point Omar went with fire to the house of Fatima (a.s.) in order to burn that house and met Fatima (a.s.). Daughter of Prophet (s.a.) said: Son of Khattab! Did you come for burning our house? He answered: Yes, except that you enter to the thing that nation has entered into!
The part which has been affirmed the intention of desecration in it finished and now we go for the second part which talks about performing this evil intention!
It should not be assumed that they only wanted to threaten and intimidate Ali (a.s.) and his companions and they did not want to perform that evil intention.
In continue of this discussion you will see that they performed this great crime!
1- Aghd Al-Fareed: 93/4, printed in Maktabat Al-Helal.
Attack had performed!
At this point word of those who only pointed to the misintention of Caliph and his companions have ended, a group which didn’t want or couldn’t to clear the rest of the tragedy, while some others has been pointed to the main tragedy which was the attack to the house and … and has somewhat removed the mask of truth. Now, we refer to the evidences of attach and desecration here: (Also, in this part sequence of times of resources has been almost observed.)
6) Abu Obaid and the book “Al-Amwal”
Abu Obaid Ghasem ibn Salaam (died 224) quotes in his book “Al-Amwal” which is reliable to Faqihs of Islam that:
Abdurrahman ibn Awf says: I went to the house of Abu Bakr for visiting him when he was ill, after long discussion he told me: I wish that if I had not done three things which I have done, as I wish that if I had done three things which I have not done. Also I wish that if I asked three things from Prophet (s.a.).
But those three things which I have done and I wish that if I had not done are:
1. وددت انّي لم أکشف بيت فاطمة و ترکته و ان اغلق على الحرب.(1)
If I had not opened the curtain of sanctity of the house of Fatima (a.s.) and left it alone, although it had been closed for fight.
When Abu Obaid reaches the sentence
لم أکشف بيت فاطمة و ترکتة ...
کذا و کذ
(and so on) and ads that I do not want to recite that!
But anytime that Abu Obaid had refused to recite the truth according to his religiosity or other reason, researchers of the book “Al-Amwal” write in footnotes that missing sentences are available in the book “Mizan Al-E’tedal” (as it has been quoted). Moreover, “Tabarani” in his “Mo’jam” and “Ibn Abd Rabboh” in “Al-Aghd Al-Fareed” and others have mentioned the missing sentences. (Attention!)
1- Al-Amwal: footnote 4, printed in Azhariyya publishing, Al-Amwal, 144, Beirut and also Ibn Abd Rabboh has quoted in Aghd Al-Fareed: 93/4 as it will be mentioned.
7) Tabarani and “Mo’jam Al-Kabir”
Abolghasem Suleiman ibn Ahmad Tabarani (260-360) whom Dhahabi says about him in “Mizan Al-E’tedal”: He is a reliable person(1) reminds in “AL-Mo’jam Al-Kabir”, which has been printed several times, when he talks about Abu Bakr and his sermons and his death:
Abu Bakr wished for some jobs when he was dying.
I wish that if I had not done three things.
I wish that if I had done three things.
I wish that if I had asked three things form prophet of Allah (s.a.).
He says about those three things which he had done and whished that if he had not done them:
أمّا الثلاث اللائي وددت أني لم أفعلهنّ، فوددت انّي لم (2)أکن أکشف بيت فاطمة و ترکتة.
Those three things which I wish if I had not done, I wish if I had not desecrated the house of Fatima (a.s.) and left it alone.
These expressions show clearly that threatenings of Omar had been performed.
1- Mizan Al-E’tedal: 195/2.
2- Great Mo’jam of Tabari: 63/1, Hadith number 34, research by Hamdi Abdul Majid Salafi.
8) Ibn Abd Rabboh and “Al-Aghd Al-Fareed”
Ibn Abd Rabboh Andalusi, author of the book “Al-Aghd Al-Fareed” (died 463), quotes from Abdurrahman ibn Awf:
I came to visit Abu Bakr when he was ill; he said: I wish that I had not done three things and one of those three things is:
وودت انّي لم أکشف بيت فاطمة عن شي و إن کانوا اغلقوه على الحرب.(1)
If I had not opened the curtain of sanctity of the house of Fatima (a.s.) and left it alone, although they had closed the door of the house for fight.
And also the names and expressions of persons who have quoted this part of words of Caliph will be mentioned.
1- Aghd Al-Fareed: 93/4 printed in Maktabat Al-Helal.
9) Words of Nazzam in the book “Al-Wafi Bil-Wafiyyat”
Ibrahim ibn Sayyar Nazzam Mu’tazili (160-231) who is called “Nazzam” according to the beauty of his words in plain text and poems quoted the incident after presence at the house of Fatima (a.s.) in several books:
انّ عمر ضرب بطن فاطمة يوم البيعة حتى ألقت المحسن من بطنها.(1)
Omar stroke to the abdomen of Fatima (a.s.) in the day of taking pledge of allegiance for Abu Bakr; she aborted the child who she has inside and had named him Mohsen! (Attention!)
1- Al-Wafi Bil-Wafiyyat: 17/6, number 2444; Mellal wa Nahl by Shahrestani: 57/1, printed in Dar al-Marifa, Beirut, and in the translation of Nazzam refer to the book “Discussions in Mellal and Nahl”: 248/3 - 255.
10) Mubarrad in the book “Kamel”
Mohammad ibn Yazid ibn Abdul Akbar Baghdadi (210-285), litterateur and famous writer and owner of valuable books, quotes the story of wishes of caliph from Abdurrahman ibn Awf in his book “Kamel” and reminds that:
1. وددت انّي لم أکشف بيت فاطمة و ترکته ولو أغلق على الحرب.(1)
If I had not opened the curtain of sanctity of the house of Fatima (a.s.) and left it alone, although it is closed for fight.
1- Explanation of Nahjul Balagha: 46/2 and 47, printed in Egypt
11) Mas’oodi and “Moravej Al-Zahab”
Mas’oodi (died 325) writes in “Moravej Al-Zahab”:
The time that Abu Bakr said, when he was dying: I had done three things and I wish that if I had not done them; one of those three things:
فوددت انّي لم أکن فتشت بيت فاطمة و ذکر في ذلک کلاماً کثيراً!(1)
I wish if I had not desecrated the house of Zahra (a.s.) and he talk about it too much!!
Although Mas’oodi has good inclinations to Ahl -e- Bait, but here he abstains from quoting the words of caliph and passes only pointing a little; albeit Allah knows and maybe his servants also know!
1- Moravej Al-Zahab: 301/2, printed in Dar Andalusia, Beirut
12) Ibn Abi Daram in the book “Mizan Al-E’tedal”
“Ahmad ibn Mohammad” known as “Ibn Abi Daram”, famous Kufi Hadith teller (died 357), person whom Mohammad ibn Ahmad ibn Hamad Kufi says about him:
کان مستقيم الأمر، عامة دهره
” (He was seeking in the way of truth all of his life), quotes according to this situation that this news had been said at his presence:
انّ عمر رفس فاطمة حتى أسقطت بمحسن.(1)
Omar kicked Fatima (a.s.) and she aborted the child called Mohsen whom she had inside! (Attention!)
1- Mizan Al-E’tedal: 459/2.
13) Abdel Fattah Abdel Maqsood and the book “Al-Imam Ali”
He has quoted the attack to the house of afflatus in two places of his book, and we suffice to mention one of them:
«و الّذي نفس عمر بيده، ليَخرجنَّ أو لأحرقنّها على من فيها...»!
قالت له طائفة خافت الله، و رعت الرسول في عقبه:
«يا أبا حفص، إنّ فيها فاطمة...»!
فصاح لايبالي: «و إن...»!
و اقترب و قرع الباب، ثمّ ضربه و اقتحمه...
و بداله علىّ...
و رنّ حينذاک صوت الزهراء عند مدخل الدار... فان هى الا طنين استغاثة ... .(1)
I swear to person who the life of Omar is in his hands, come out or I’ll burn the house over its residents.
Some people who have fear of God and observed the dignity of Prophet (s.a.) after him, said:
Aba Hafs! Fatima is in this house!”
He shouted fearlessly: “So what!!”
He got close, knocked the door, then punched and kicked in order to enter by force.
Ali (a.s.) appeared …
The sound of Zahra arose at the doorway … this was her groan of help …!
We finish this discussion with another Hadith from “Muqatil ibn Atiyya” in the book “Al-Imama wa Al-Siasa”. (Although there are lots of unsaid to be said!)
He writes in this book:
ان ابابکر بعد ما اخذ البيعة لنفسه من الناس بالارهاب و السيف و القوّة ارسل عمر، و قنفذاً و جماعة الى دار علىّ و فاطمه(عليه السلام) و جمع عمر الحطب على دار فاطمه و احرق باب الدار!...(2)
When Abu Bakr took the pledge of allegiance from people by threatening, sword and force, sent Omar, Qanfaz and a group of persons to the house of Ali and Fatima (a.s.); and Omar collected firewood and burnt the door of the house …
And there are other expressions below this cabbala which my pen is ashamed of writing them.
Conclusion: Do they say again “legend of martyrdom …!” by this much of clear proofs and evidences which mostly are quoted from their resources?
Where is Fairness?!
Surely, anyone who read this short and documentary discussion with clear proofs understands that after the departure of prophet of Allah (s.a.) what a tumult began, and what they had done to gain the power and reign and this is the divine last word for all far from fanaticism freethinkers, because we did not write anything from ourselves, all that we have written is from their trustful resources.
khordad 1380 - May 2001
1- Abdel Fattah Abdel Maqsood, Ali ibn Abu Talib: 276/4 - 277.
2- The book Al-Imama and Al-Khilafa, page 160 and 161, written by Muqatil ibn Atiyya which is printed with a foreword by Dr. Hamed Dawood master of Ain Shams university in Cairo , in Beirut, Albalagh institute.
1. The documents of the pen and the ink-pot tradition
The story concerns the last days of the Prophet’s life (s.a.). Some of the Companions visited the Prophet (s.a.) and he told them, “bring me a pen and an ink-pot so that I can write a letter for you after that you never go astray”. But some of the Companions opposed and prevented him from writing the letter. This tradition has been mentioned in six narratives in Sahih of Bukhari and three narratives in Sahih of Muslim and both of the books are ones from the most valid narrative books of Sunnites.
According to Muslim in his Sahih, first part of the story is as follows:
Sa’id ibn Jubayr says that ibn ‘Abbas has said, “يوم الخميس، و ما يوم الخميس، ثم جعل تسيل دموعه حتى رأيت على خدّيه کأنّها نظام اللّؤلُو. قال: قال رسول الله: «ائتونى بالکتف والدواة ـ او اللوح والدواة ـ اکتب لکم کتاباً لن تضلّوا بعده ابداً Thursday, what an in tolerable day it was!”, then ibn ‘Abbas wept and I saw him shedding a flood of tears which were like a string of pearls on his cheeks. Then he continued that the Prophet (s.a.) said, “bring me a paper and a pen so that I can write something for you, after that you never go astray…””.
At first, it seems that after hearing this request of the Prophet (s.a.), all the Companions who were there would have eagerly and interestingly brought the Prophet (s.a.) the pen and the ink-pot so that he could write his will, because on one side obedience to the Prophet (s.a.) was obligatory, on another side, that writing was related to their eternal guidance and abandonment of their aberrance and on the other side, the Prophet (s.a.) was sick and his death was approaching, as a result, he would state comprehensive words and a particular guidance, so they shouldn’t have hesitated to take the Prophet’s order and bring him pen and ink-pot without any delay, but surprisingly some of the Companions opposed the Prophet (s.a.), although their reaction was unbelievable, it was true. Because this matter has been mentioned in two Sahih books and well-known historical books.
According to this narrative, they started a quarrel in the presence of the Prophet (s.a.). Some of them said, “Bring pen and ink-spot” and some other said, “Don’t do that”. In some of the narratives, it has not been mentioned the names of the opponents, but in some others, it has been specified that ‘Umar opposed (the Prophet (s.a.)), for instance, it has been stated in Sahih of Bukhari that after the request of the Prophet (s.a.) regarding the bringing of the pen and the ink-pot, ‘Umar said, “إنّ النّبيّ غلب عليه الوجع!!، وعندکم القرآن، حسبنا کتاب الله the sickness has overpowered the Prophet (s.a.), Quran is with you and God’s holy book is sufficient for us”. Bukhari has also quoted the same saying in another part of his book but with a slight difference from ‘Umar. He has written that ibn ‘Abbas said, “when the Prophet’s illness became worst, he said, “bring me a piece of paper so that I can write a letter for you after that you may not go astray”, ‘Umar said, “ائتونى بکتاب اکتب لکم کتاباً لا تضلّوا بعده، قال عمر: إنّ النبىّ(صلى الله عليه وآله)غلبه الوجع، وعندنا کتاب الله حسبنا the illness has overpowered the Prophet (s.a.) and the God’s holy book which is sufficient for us, is with us” ”.
The name of ‘Umar as an opponent has been mentioned in one case (of three cases) in Muslim’s Sahih, and based on other similar sayings, there is no doubt about ‘Umar’s disagreement with the Prophet (s.a.) and also based on the application of the following words “فقالوا: he said” and “فقال بعضهم : some people said” in the quotations, it can be realized that one of those who disagreed with the will was ‘Umar. As it has been referred to this matter before, this story has been mentioned six times by Bukhari and three times by Muslim in their books, and it can be perceived from these narratives that when ‘Umar disagreed (with the Prophet (s.a.)) some of them (Companions) took ‘Umar’s side and some others opposed him. Many of Sunnites scholars have also quoted this story in their books, but we only examine the narratives mentioned in Sahih books of Muslim and Bukhari –which are the most valid books among Sunnis-
2. Various sayings used for opposing the Prophet (s.a.)
Now we mention the sayings which were said for disagreeing with the Prophet’s command. As we have said before, these sayings are mentioned in Sahih books of Bukhari and Muslim.
It has been mentioned, “فقال بعضهم: إنّ رسول الله قد غلبه الوجع، وعندکم القرآن، حسبنا کتاب الله: some people said: the sickness has overpowered the Prophet (s.a.), Quran is with you and God’s holy book is sufficient for us”.
Somewhere else it has been mentioned, “فقال عمر: انّ رسول الله قد غلب عليه الوجع، وعندکم القرآن، حسبنا کتاب الله : ‘Umar said: the sickness has overpowered the Prophet (s.a.), Quran is with you and God’s holy book is sufficient for us”.
The same as the above narrative, it has been mentioned, “فقال عمر: إنّ النّبى قد غلب عليه الوجع، وعندکم القرآن، حسبنا کتاب الله: ‘Umar said: the sickness has overpowered the Prophet (s.a.), Quran is with you and God’s holy book is sufficient for us”.
Somewhere else it has been mentioned, “قال عمر: إنّ النّبى غلبه الوجع، وعندنا کتاب الله، حسبنا :’Umar said: the illness has overpowered the Prophet (s.a.) and the God’s holy book which is sufficient for us, is with us”.
Based on these narratives, for preventing the Prophet (s.a.) from writing the letter, ‘Umar said, “the illness has overpowered the Prophet (s.a.) (and he is not careful about what he says (we seek refuge in God)) and the Quran which is with you, is sufficient for guiding you and us”.
The word of < هجر : talk nonsense (we seek refuge in God) has been used in five narratives, although in some cases in an interrogative form and in one case in an indicative form. It has been mentioned, “ فقالوا: أهجر رسول الله: ”. In two cases, it has been mentioned, “فقالوا: ما شأنه؟ أهجر؟ استفهموه: they said: what is wrong with the Prophet (s.a.)? Has he gone mad?”.
Lexicologists believe that when < هجر is said about a patient, it means that he talks nonsense. Fayyumi has written in <Misbah al-Munir, “هجر المريض فى کلامه هجراً ايضاً خلط وهذى : when the patient said <هجر, it meant that he talked nonsense and irrelevantly”.
It has been stated in Lisan al-‘Arab, “الهَجْر: الهذيان والهُجْر بالضم: الاسم من الاهجار وهو الافحاش وهَجَر فى نومه ومرضه يهجُر هجراً: هذى <هجر Hajr means talking nonsense and <هجر Hojr which is a verbal noun, means obscene saying and when you say this word to a lying person or patient, it means that he talks nonsense and irrelevantly when being asleep or patient”. How could it be possible that someone say such words and sayings about God’s messenger and the communicator between Him and His servants? While it has been said about him in Quran, “وَمَا يَنطِقُ عَنِ الْهَوَى: nor does he speak out of desire.”, “وَمَا آتَاکُمُ الرَّسُولُ فَخُذُوهُ وَمَا نَهَاکُمْ عَنْهُ فَانتَهُوا: and whatever he forbids you, abstain”, and also this one, “ فَلْيَحْذَرِ الَّذِينَ يُخَالِفُونَ عَنْ أَمْرِهِ أَن تُصِيبَهُمْ فِتْنَةٌ أَوْ يُصِيبَهُمْ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ: so let those who disobey his command beware, lest they are struck by sedition, or, they are stricken with a painful punishment.”.
3. Quarrel and disagreement in the presence of the Prophet (s.a.)
Besides these unfair sayings, some of the Companions began to quarrel in the presence of the Prophet (s.a.). Some of whom agreed with ‘Umar and some other disagreed with him and said, “let the Prophet (s.a.) write his will”, according to some narratives in Bukhari’s Sahih, “فاختلفوا وکثُر اللَّغَط : they quarreled a lot and raised their voice”.
It has been mentioned in four narratives in the Sahih books of Bukhari and Muslim, “فتنازعوا ولاينبغى عند نبىّ تنازع: they began to quarrel and dispute, while it wasn’t a proper act in the presence of the Prophet (s.a.)”.
It has been mentioned in three narratives in the Sahih books of Bukhari and Muslim (with a slight difference in words), “فاختلف اهلُ البيت فاختصموا، فکان منهم من يقول: قرِّبوا يکتب لکم النبىّ کتاباً لن تضلوا بعده، ومنهم من يقول ما قال عمر the people who were present in the house disagreed (with one another) and began to dispute. Some of them said, “bring the pen and the ink-pot so that he can write a document for you, after that you may never go astray” and some other repeated ‘Umar’s saying (the illness has overpowered the Prophet (s.a.))”.
It can be realized from these narratives that they quarreled while were in the presence of the Prophet (s.a.) and stated the above mentioned sayings.
4. What was the reaction of the Prophet (s.a.)?
The reaction of the Prophet (s.a.) to the unfair behaviors of some of the Companions and their quarrel is noticeable. According to Sahih books of Bukhari and Muslim, the Prophet (s.a.) reacted in two ways:
1. He said, “قوموا عنّى ولاينبغى عندى التنازع get up (and leave here), because it is not appropriate to quarrel in my presence”.
According to this saying, the angriness and sadness of the Prophet (s.a.) from their behaviors and disputation can be understood.
2. When they began to quarrel and insulted the Prophet (s.a.), he said, “ذرونى، فالّذى أنا فيه خير ممّا تدعوني إليه leave me alone, because the feeling that I have right now is better than what you are doing (insulting me)”. (it refers to his special attention to God during the last moments of his life)
5. Why was ibn Abbas filled with great sorrow?
According to five narratives of Sahih books, when ibn Abbas intended to narrate the story of that day, at first he remembered it with great sadness and sorrow and then narrated the story. An example of this is the following narrative, “Sa’id ibn Jubayr –according to Bukhari’s Sahih- has said that ibn ‘Abbas said, “يوم الخميس و ما يوم الخميس; Thursday, what a painful Thursday?!”. Then Sa’id ibn jubayr said, “then (ibn ‘Abbas) wept in such a way that his tears fell on the gravel” ”.
It is obvious that ibn ‘Abbas’s grief and tears were due to the insult to the Prophet (s.a.) and preventing him from writing (the document), which could stop the people from aberrance.
In four narratives of Sahih books of Bukhari and Muslim concerning this story, it is said that after narrating the story, ibn ‘Abbas regretted a lot that the Prophet (s.a.) was prevented from writing the letter. For example, “قال عبيدالله: وکان ابن عباس يقول: إنّ الرزيّة کلّ الرزيّة ما حال بينَ رسول الله وبين أن يکتُبَ لهم ذلک الکتاب، من اختلافهم ولَغَطهم’Ubayd-allah ibn ‘Abdullah said that ibn ‘Abbas used to say, “the worst damage and truly the irreparable loss is that the Prophet (s.a.) has been prevented from writing that letter because of their quarrel and disputation””.
6. Is it possible to impute such things to the Prophet (s.a.) and disobey him?
The commentators of Sahih books have specified in the exegesis of these narratives that the Prophet (s.a.) is innocent whether being healthy or patient, and his saying is in accordance with the truth.
Ibn Hajar ‘Asqalani has quoted from Qurtubi that he said, “in this narrative, the word of <(Hajr ) هجر : nonsense means the saying of a diseased person who doesn’t talk properly, therefore, his saying is ignored”. Then he said, “ووقوع ذلک من النبى(صلى الله عليه وآله)مستحيل لانّه معصوم فى صحّته ومرضه لقوله تعالى (وَمَا يَنْطِقُ عَنِ الْهَوَى) و لقوله(صلى الله عليه وآله) إنّى لااقول فى الغضب والرضا إلاّ حَقّاً : it is unlikely that the Prophet (s.a.) does such thing (talking nonsense), because he is innocent whether being healthy or patient because of this saying of God, “nor does he speak out of desire” and the saying of his holiness, “when I am pleased or angry, I say nothing except the truth”. Badr al-Din ‘Ayni has stated the same matter in <‘Umdat al-Qari, which is an exegesis of Bukhari’s Sahih.
There is another well-known scholar, named Nawawi, who has also said in the exegesis of Bukhari’s Sahih, “إعلم انّ النبى معصوم من الکذب و من تغيير شيء من الاحکام الشرعية فى حال صحته وحال مرضه; be aware that the Prophet (s.a.) is certainly innocent of any mendacity, unjustness and changing the divine’s laws whether he is healthy or patient”. Moreover, many verses of Quran which we have mentioned before signify that it was far beyond the Prophet’s status (s.a.) to state improper sayings during his life.
It is noticeable that a group of Sunnis scholars have tried to account for this absolute historical matter, which is really surprising.
There is no need to account for this explicit matter. Instead of their illogical justifications and prejudgments, wouldn’t it has been better to say, “someone or some people committed a great sin and as we know all, they were all fallible”? As an example, it is written in <Fath al-Bari Fi Sharh Sahih Bukhari, which is one of the best books among them (Sunnis), that, “there is a consensus among the scholars that this saying, < قول عمر حسبنا کتاب الله : Quran is sufficient for us indicates the power of his religious jurisprudence (Fiqh) and accuracy”!! Does its previous sentence –the illness has overpowered the Prophet (s.a.) (and he talks nonsense)- indicate the power of his jurisprudence and accuracy, as well?! Moreover, is the Book of God sufficient without the Prophet’s tradition (Sunnah)? While the number of Rak’ahs of prayer, quantity of Zakat, the number of circumambulation (around Ka’bah), running between Safa and Marwah during pilgrimage, stoning Satan symbolically and many of other laws have only been stated in the Prophet’s tradition (Sunnah), does the denial of these matters indicate the jurisprudence and one’s accuracy? Isn’t it better to confess to the realities, instead of saying such justifications? (God is the most knowing)
7. The more important matter!
besides these unfair and surprising sayings stated in six narratives of Bukhari’s Sahih and three narratives of Muslim’s Sahih, we face this question that what was the important matter that the Prophet (s.a.) intended to write (or command others to write) and resulted in such intense disagreement? Firstly, that matter was surely relevant to the last days of the Prophet’s life. Secondly, it (the letter) was such an important matter that if it had been observed, it would have been averted any quarrel and aberration resulting from it. Thirdly, it wasn’t a desirable matter for some of the present people and they disagreed with that.
We suppose that the readers have guessed that this matter concerned caliphate and leadership (Wilayat) (of Ali ibn Abi Talib (a.s.)).
We believe that after saying several statements for introducing Imam Ali (a.s.) as the leader of the community and particularly after the event of Ghadir, the Prophet (a.s.) was trying to stabilize his (Imam Ali’s) leadership and caliphate. This matter can be realized from the Prophet’s similar words in this tradition and his other words about his household (‘Itrah) –specially the tradition of Thaqalayn-. ( if God’s pleases, we will write about the tradition of Ghadir and Thaqalayn later)
Please study this article once more. We do not judge but entrust it to you.
والسلام على من اتبع الهدى (manish chi mishe?)
Muharam al-Haram 1429 A.H.
January of the year 2008
Table of Sources
1. The Holy Quran
2. Tarikh Tabari, Muhammad ibn Jurayr Tabari, the institution of A’lami, Bayrut, fourth publication, 1403 A.H.
3. Tafsir al-Quran al-‘Azim, ibn Kathir Damishqi, Daral-Andalus, Bayrut, 1996 A.H.
4. Sahih ibn Habban,the research of Shu’ayb al-‘Arna’ut- the institution of Risalat, second publication, 1414 A.H.
5. Sahih Bukhari, Abu ‘Abdullah Muhammad ibn Isma’il Bukhari, the research of Sidqi Jamil al-‘Attar, Dar al-Fikr, Bayrut, first publication, 2005
6. Sahih Muslim, Abul-Husayn Muslim ibn Hajjaj Nayshaburi, the research of Sidqi Jamil al-‘Attar, Dar al-Fikr, Bayrut, first publication, 2004
7. Sahih Muslim Sharh Muhyi al-Din Nawawi, Shirkat Abna’ Sharif al-Ansari, Bayrut, 2007
8. ‘Umdat al-Qari Sharh Sahih Bukhari, Badr al-Din ‘Ayni, Daral-Fikr, Bayrut, first publication, 2005
9. Fath al-Bari, Ahmad ibn ‘Ali ibn Hajar ‘Asqalani, press of al-‘Abikan, Riaz, first publication, 1421 A.H.
10. Al-Kamil Fi al-Tarikh, ibn Athir Jazari, the research of Abi al-Fada’ ‘Abdullah al-Qazi, Daral-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, Bayrut, third publication, 1418 A.H.
11. Lisan al-‘Arab, ibn Manzur Afriqi, dar Sadir, Bayrut, first publication, 1997
12. Musnad Abi Ya’li, Abu Ya’li Musali, the searching of Husayn Salim Asad, Daral-Ma’mun al-Turath, second publication
13. Musnad Ahmad, Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Dar Sadir, Bayrut
14. Misbah al-Munir, Fayyumi, revision by Muhammad ‘Abdul-Hamid, 1347 A.H.
 Sahih Bukhari, Kitab al-‘Ilm, chapter 39 (Kitab al-‘Ilm chapter), tradition No. 4; al-Jahad wal-Sayr book; chapter 175, Tradition No. 1; al-Jaziyah book, chapter 6. Tradition No. 2; al-Mughazi book, chapter 84 (chapter of Marza al-Nabi wa Wafatah), Tradition No 4, the same chapter, Tradition No 5; Kitab al-Marza, chapter 17 (chapter of Qawl al-Mariz Qumu ‘Ani), Tradition No.1
 Sahih Muslim; al-Wasiyah book, chapter 6, Tradition No.6; the same chapter, Tradition No.7; the same chapter, Tradition No. 8
 This evening happened on Thursday and the Prophet died on Monday (four days later), according to Tabari. Tabari has written about the evenings of 11th century, “all the historians agree that the Prophet (s.a.) died on Monday”. Ibn Hajar has also written in Fath al-Bari, “the Prophet (s.a.) became sick on Thursday and died on Monday”. (volume No.7, P. 739)
 Sahih Muslim, al-Wasiyah book, chapter 6, Tradition No.7
 Sahih Bukhari, wal-Sayr book, chapter 175, Tradition No.1; al-Jaziyah book, chapter 6. Tradition No. 2; al-Mughazi book, chapter 84 (chapter of Marza al-Nabi wa Wafatah), Tradition No 4 and 5; Sahih Muslim, Kitab al-Wasiyah, chapter 6, Tradition No.6 and 7
 Kitab al-Marza, chapter 17 (chapter of Qawl al-Marza Qumu ‘Ani), Tradition No.1
 The same document, Kitab al-‘Ilm, chapter 39 (chapter of Kitab al-‘Ilm), Tradition No. 4
 Sahih Muslim, Kitab al-Wasiyah, chapter 6, Tradition No.8
 Sahih Muslim, al-Mughazi book, chapter 84, Tradition No.4 and Sahih Muslim, Kitab al-Wasiyah, chapter 6, Tradition No.6 and 7
 Sahih Bukhari, al-Mughazi book, chapter 84, Tradition No. 5
 Refer to: Musnad Ahmad, vol. 1, P. 222, 293, 324, 325 and 355; Vol. 3, p. 346; Musnad Abi Ya’li, Vol. 3, P. 395; Sahih ibn Hayyan, Vol. 8, P. 201; Tarikh Tabari, vol. 3, P. 193; Kamil ibn Athir, Vol. 2, P. 185 and other books
 Sahih Bukhari, al-Mughazi book, chapter 84, Tradition No. 5
 Sahih Muslim, Kitab al-Wasiyah, chapter 6, Tradition No. 8
 Sahih Bukhari, Kitab al-Marza, chapter 17, Tradition No.1
 The same document, Kitab al-‘Ilm, chapter 39 (chapter of Kitab al-‘Ilm), Tradition No. 4
 Sahih Bukhari, wal-Sayr book, chapter 175, Tradition No.1
 The same document, al-Mughazi book, chapter 84, Tradition No. 4 and Sahih Muslim, chapter 6 and Tradition No. 6
 Misbah al-Munir, Hajr word
 Lisan al-‘Arab, Hajr word
 Najm Sura, 3
 Hashr Sura, 7
 Nur Sura, 63. Ibn Kathir has written, “the pronoun of “امره” refers to the Prophet (s.a.)” and he said in addition to this verse of Quran, “أَنْ تُصِيبَهُمْ فِتْنَةٌ” that, “اى فى قلوبهم من کفر او نفاق او بدعة :disagreement with the prophet (s.a.) results in sedition. It means that infidelity, hypocrisy or innovation strike these people in their hearts” (the exegesis of ibn Kathir, Vol. 5, P. 131)
 Sahih Bukhari, Kitab al-‘Ilm, chapter 39, Tradition No. 4
 Sahih Bukhari, al-Jahad wal-Sayr book, chapter 175, Tradition No.1; al-Mughazi book chapter 84, Tradition No.4; Kitab al-Jaziyah, chapter 6, Tradition No. 2; Sahih Muslim, Kitab al-Wasiyah, chapter 6, Tradition No. 6
 Sahih Bukhari, Kitab al-Marza, chapter 17, Tradition No. 1; al-Mughazi book chapter 84, Tradition No.4; Sahih Muslim, Kitab al-Wasiyah, chapter 6, Tradition No. 8
 Sahih Muslim, Kitab al-‘Ilm, chapter 39, Tradition No. 4. In some of the narratives only the word of “قوموا: get up” has been narrated: the same document, al-Mughazi book, chapter 84, Tradition No.4; Kitab al-Marza, chapter 17, Tradition No.1; Sahih Muslim, Kitab al-Wasiyah, chapter 6, Tradition No. 8
 Sahih Bukhari, Kitab al-jaziyah, chapter 6, Tradition No. 2; al-Mughazi book, chapter 84, Tradition No. 4; Kitab al-Jahad wal-sayr, chapter 175, Tradition No. 1 (in this tradition, “دعونى” word has been mentioned instead of “ذرونى” word. The following has also been mentioned in Sahih Muslim, Kitab al-Wasiyah, chapter 6, Tradition No. 6, “قال: «دعونى فالّذى أنا فيه خير»”
 Sahih Bukhari, Kitab al-‘Ilm, chapter 6, Tradition No. 2. The same has been mentioned in other narratives; refer to: Sahih Muslim, Kitab al-Jahad wal-Sayr, chapter 175, Tradition No. 1; al-Mughazi book, chapter 84, Tradition No.4 (without narrating the weeping of ibn ‘Abbas); Sahih Muslim, Kitab al-Wasiyah, chapter 60, Tradition No. 6 and 7
 Sahih Bukhari, Kitab al-Marza, chapter 17, Tradition No.1; the same as this narrative: Kitab al-’Ilm, chapter 39, Tradition No. 4; al-Mughazi book, chapter 84, Tradition No.5; Sahih Muslim, Kitab al-Wasiyah, chapter 6, Tradition No. 8
 Fath al-Bari, Vol. 7, P-P. 739 -740
 ‘Umdat al-Qari, Vol. 12, P. 388 (Dar al-Fikr, Bayrut, first publication, 2005)
 Sahih Muslim, with the exegesis of Imam Muhyi al-Din Nawawi, Vol. 4, P. 257
 Sahih Bukhari, Kitab al-Marzi and Sahih Muslim, Kitab al-Wasiyah