A REFLECTION ON THE REALITY OF MUBAHALAH FROM THE VIEWPOINT OF GRAND AYATOLLAH MAKAREM SHIRAZI
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A REFLECTION ON THE REALITY OF MUBAHALAH FROM THE VIEWPOINT OF GRAND AYATOLLAH MAKAREM SHIRAZI

Researched and edited at editorial deputy of his eminence office makarem news

Abstract: The encounter of Islam with other religions was with great respect and friendship. The Quran, which is the holy book of the Muslim faith, has instructed the believers as follows: ‘Do not argue with the People of the Book except in a manner which is best.’[1]
Keywords: Islam, Muhammad, Shia, Muslim, The Holy Prophet, Imam Ali, Quran, Makarem Shirazi, Mubahalah, Prophethood, Jesus, Wilayah, Ahl al-Bayt, Sunni

The event of Mubahalah is considered to be one of the miracles of the Prophet of Islam (ṣ) against the deviant beliefs and claims of the Christians of Najrān. This event was seen as a solid proof as to the truthfulness of the Prophet (ṣ) and for the religion of Islam against the claims of the other jnreligions. In light of this issue, it is critical that we look deeply into the various points and facets related to this event. In order to gain this deeper understanding of Mubahalah, we will utilize the viewpoints of Grand Ayatollah Makārim Shīrāzī and see what he has mentioned in this regard.


The Event of Mubahalah According to Grand Ayatollah Makārim Shīrāzī


Grand Ayatollah Makārim Shīrāzī has explained what took place at Mubahalah in the following words: According to what has been mentioned in history, the Christians of Najrān sent a sixty-man delegate to meet with the Prophet (ṣ) and speak with him in Medina. One of the things which they asked the Prophet (ṣ) was what he was calling them to. The Prophet (ṣ) replied to them: (I am calling you to the belief that) there is only one God and that Jesus was a servant of God, who possessed a human state (meaning he was not divine).


The Christians of Najrān did not accept this and they replied that Jesus had been born without a father and that this is indicative of the fact that he was of a divine nature.[2] Various verses were revealed which responded to the Christians but they still refused to accept. When the Prophet (ṣ) saw that the Christians were not willing to accept logic and reason, he then invited them to a Mubahalah (i.e. a mutual cursing).  The Prophet (ṣ) explained to them what would take place at this event and they selected a date for when it would be performed.


The Arch Bishop of the Christians, who was one of the highest ranking officials amongst them, said to his followers: Prepare yourselves for this Mubahalah and when the day comes, show up as promised. If you see the Prophet of Islam (ṣ) coming on that day with his close companions and notables, then perform the Mubahalah with him. But if you see him coming for the Mubahalah with his family, then refrain from performing it. The Christians asked him what the reason behind this was.


He replied: if he comes with his companions, it is clear that he is not truthful in regards to his prophethood and message, and you will dominate in this contest. But if you see him coming with his closest family members, then it will become clear that he has a connection with God and he has come to the field fully relying on Him.  In any case, the promised day came and the Christians saw the Prophet (ṣ) coming while he was holding the hands of two children; these were his two grandsons, al-Ḥasan (ʿa) and al-Ḥusayn (ʿa). Alongside him were Imam ʿAlī (ʿa) and Fāṭimah (ʿa).


When the Arch Bishop saw this, he said: I see faces which, if they were to supplicate (to God), they would definitely be answered, and you would be destroyed.[3] He then told them to refrain from performing the Mubahalah and to tell the Muslims that they were willing to live as a peaceful minority alongside them and pay them the necessary taxes.  The Prophet (ṣ) accepted their request and he did not perform the Mubahalah. This story is a well-known story which has been recorded in all of the major history texts related to Islam.


What Does the Term Mubahalah Mean?


Grand Ayatollah Makārim Shīrāzī has mentioned the following in regards to the lexical meaning of the term Mubahalah: The term Mubahalah derives from the root word of Bahl which means letting something go. Even in Farsi, this word is used with this same meaning. In the religious context, Mubahalah refers to when two groups stand in opposition to one another in regards to a religious issue and each one asks Allah (swt) to curse the other (who are lying). Whoever’s curse takes effect is seen to be the victor and the one who is negatively affected is seen to be the lying party.


So whenever two parties disagree with one another and they cannot come to a rational conclusion, they can engage in the Mubahalah and curse one another, saying: If I am truthful and you are not, then may you be afflicted with divine punishment. The other will then repeat this same line, asking Allah (swt) to disgrace the liar and make clear who is being truthful. This is what the Prophet (ṣ) was going to do against the Christians of Najrān so that they would know who was being truthful and who was concealing the truth.  This is in essence what a Mubahalah consists of.  The connection between the lexical meaning of this word and its meaning in the religious context are fairly clear ; an individual who performs the Mubahalah makes a claim to the truth and then “lets the other side go”, leaving him to be judged by Allah (swt).[4]


The Importance of the Event of Mubahalah

The Truthfulness of the Prophet of Islam (ṣ) in his Claim of Prophethood


Grand Ayatollah Makārim Shīrāzī has explained that the essential nature of the event of Mubahalah corroborated the truth of the divine message of Islam. He has mentioned in this regard that: The first thing which appears in the well-known Quranic verse pertaining to the Mubahalah  is that this event was a clear sign of the truthfulness of the Prophet of Islam (ʿa) and the message which he had brought.


Clearly, if one is not absolutely certain of the truthfulness of their message, they would not bring their closest and dearest family members to such an arena. Such an individual would never invite another group to come to one place and ask Allah (swt) to disgrace the liars , while promising that the other group would without any doubt be subject to Allah’s wrath!  Certainly, entering into such a contest would be very dangerous for; if one group’s curse is accepted and put into effect, then the other group would suffer its severe consequences and be completely disgraced both personally, as well as in front of all of their followers. No rational individual would engage in such a thing without being completely certain of its results.


It is for this reason that we read the following in the Islamic traditions: When the time for the event of Mubahalah arrived, the Christians of Najrān asked the Prophet (ṣ) for some time in order to reflect and think. When they saw that the Prophet (ṣ) had come with individuals who were clearly of a high spiritual rank, and he had come without any pomp or ceremony, with only his closest and dearest family members, the Christians further realized the truthfulness of the Prophet (ṣ) and they asked to cancel the Mubahalah. The reason behind this was that they feared that if they did engage in it, they would be subjected to the wrath of Allah (swt) and be disgraced as the untruthful party. Due to this reason, they agreed to compromise and live as a minority alongside the Muslims.


A Quranic Reflection on the Event of Mubahalah


Allah (swt) has mentioned in the Quran that: ‘Should anyone argue with you concerning Him, after the knowledge that has come to you, say, ‘Come! Let us call our sons and your sons, our women and your women, our souls and your souls, then let us pray earnestly and call down Allah’s curse upon the liars.’’[5]


Mubahalah: A Negation of the Divinity of Jesus (ʿa)


Grand Ayatollah Makārim Shīrāzī has explained in his commentary on the 61st verse of Surah Āl ʿImrān how the event of Mubahalah has negated the Christians’ beliefs in the divinity of Christ (ʿa). He has mentioned in this regard that: The aforementioned verse, together with the verses that come before and after it, are indicative of the fact that the reason for this Mubahala had been a combination of the Christians’ deviant beliefs, including their belief in the divinity of Jesus, as well as their dogged rejection of logic and rational reasoning. Thus, the Prophet (ṣ) was forced to engage in this Mubahalah with the Christians of Najrān in order to expose the lying side and to defend the truthful one!


Grand Ayatollah Makārim Shīrāzī has then delved into the commentary on the aforementioned verse and he has explained that the verse is basically telling the Prophet (ṣ) that if any of the Christians come to debate with you in regards to Jesus the son of Mary, and they do not accept your logic out of a sense of stubbornness, and they continue down this path, then there is another way for you to confront them, which is that of the Mubahalah.[6] This will clearly show who is rightly guided and who is lying. The next part of the verse then states: ‘…say, ‘Come! Let us call our sons and your sons, our women and your women, our souls and your souls…. [7] This clarifies who the Prophet (ṣ) should bring to such a gathering.


This shows us that when a Mubahalah takes place, there needs to be four groups present there. The first category involves the leaders of the two faiths, meaning the Prophet (ṣ) and the leader of the Christians. The second category involves their children; the third category involves their women, while the fourth category includes their ‘selves’. The last part of the verse then states: ‘…, then let us pray earnestly and call down Allah’s curse upon the liars’.[8] So after these groups have gathered for the Mubahalah, both sides will call for Allah’s curse on the liars; through these means, it will become clear who is being truthful and who is being a liar.


Who are: ‘our sons, our women, and our selves’?


Grand Ayatollah Makārim Shīrāzī has then referred to the words ‘our sons, our women, and our selves’ in this verse and has said: The term “our sons” in the aforementioned verse refers to Imam Ḥasan (ʿa) and Imam Ḥusayn (ʿa). The word “women” (which is referenced in the plural tense) refers to Fāṭimah al-Zahrāʾ (ʿa), and the word our “selves” (which is also in the plural tense) is a reference made to ʿAlī ibn Abī Ṭālib (ʿa).  Although the last two words are grammatically plural, they are in reality referring to one individual each, namely Fāṭimah (ʿa) and ʿAlī (ʿa).


Moreover, Grand Ayatollah Makārim Shīrāzī has continued: There is apparently no difference of opinion amongst the various scholars (meaning between the Shia and Sunni scholars) in regards to the term ‘our women’ being a sole reference to Fāṭimah al-Zahrāʾ (ʿa).  Similarly, there is also no difference of opinion in regards to ‘our sons’ being a reference to Imam al-Ḥasan (ʿa) and Imam al-Ḥusayn (ʿa) as well.  Therefore, the primary focus of our discussion here is on the meaning of the term ‘our selves’ and what it is in reference to.


Grand Ayatollah Makārim Shīrāzī has stated that the term ‘our selves’ is a reference to Imam ʿAlī (ʿa) and he has made the following remarks in this regard: The Late Qāḍī Nūrullah Shūshtarī, in his valuable book ’Iḥqāq al-Ḥaq, has mentioned- ‘The majority of the Quranic commentators (Sunni and Shia) have a consensus that the term ‘our selves’ is in reference to ʿAlī (ʿa).’[9,10] Similarly, Grand Ayatollah Marʿashī, has narrated this issue from more than sixty different Sunni references.  This means that this issue is so clear and widely known that, in addition to all of the Shia references, it has been mentioned in most of the Sunni references as well.


Therefore, this Quranic verse is stating that the term ‘our selves’, a reference to the self of the Prophet (ṣ), is in reference to Imam ʿAlī (ʿa), while the term ‘our women’ is a reference to Fāṭimah al-Zahrāʾ (ʿa), and ‘our sons’ is a reference to her two children, Imam al-Ḥasan (ʿa) and Imam al-Ḥusayn (ʿa). These four individuals, alongside the Prophet (ṣ), comprise five people who are seen as being very lofty and near to Allah (swt). These four individuals, who are the Prophet’s (s) nearest kin, are so spiritually perfect and near to Allah (swt) that their prayers will definitely be answered.


The Response of Grand Ayatollah Makārim Shīrāzī to the Claims of Ālūsī


After Grand Ayatollah Makārim Shīrāzī’s explanation of the terms ‘our sons, our women, and our selves’, he has then gone on to critique Ālūsī’s idea that the term ‘our selves’ was in reality a reference to the Prophet (ṣ). He has mentioned in this regard: Ālūsī, in his book Rūḥ al-Maʿānī, has first acknowledged that there were no one present alongside the Prophet (ṣ) in the event of the Mubahalah other than ʿAlī (ʿa), Fāṭimah (ʿa), al-Ḥasan (ʿa), and al-Ḥusayn (ʿa). In spite of this acknowledgement, he has then mentioned that the term ‘our selves’ was a reference to the Prophet (ṣ) and ʿAlī (ʿa) was a part of the category of ‘our children’. He has mentioned his evidence in regards to this claim as being that sons-in-law are also called “sons” in the Arabic language!


Yet, the answer to this claim is quite clear; according to the Quranic verse, the Prophet (ṣ) has invited these three categories of people to accompany him in the Mubahalah. If the term ‘our selves’ was a reference to the Prophet (ṣ), then it wouldn’t make any sense, since he would be inviting himself to attend, while he had been the one who had established the Mubahalah to begin with. In light of the reality that the Quran is one of the most eloquent works in Arabic, the Quran would never utilize such an ineloquent type of wording and it would never order the Prophet (ṣ) to invite himself to the Mubahalah. Therefore, the meaning of the term ‘our selves’ is definitely not in reference to the Prophet (ṣ). Additionally, to the best of our knowledge there is no proof indicating that it is customary in the Arabic language and culture to call someone’s son-in-law their “son”;such a usage is quite alien and unusual in the Arabic language.


Attributing Untruthfulness to the Prophet (ṣ): Incuring Divine Curse and Punishment


Without any doubt, the event of Mubahalah shows us some of the key consequences of claiming that the prophetic message was a lie. Grand Ayatollah Makārim Shīrāzī has mentioned in this regard that: In the well-known verse of Mubahalah, the issue of attributing lies to the Prophet (ṣ) is touched upon and it has stated that the curse of Allah will be upon such people. In the last part of this verse, it has been mentioned that: ‘…and call down Allah’s curse upon the liars.’ This verse shows how mortal a sin lying is.


The Event of Mubahalah: The Proof of the Prophet (ṣ)’s Unshakable Faith in Allah (swt)


The unshakable faith of the Prophet (ṣ) is one of the realities which was evidenced at the event of Mubahalah. Grand Ayatollah Makārim Shīrāzī has explained this issue as follows: What took place at the Mubahalah was something which had not previously been witnessed by the Arabs and it was something new to them. It was essentially a way to prove the truthfulness of the prophetic message.  Mubahalah showed the masses how unswerving the faith of the Prophet (ṣ) was in his message.  If the Prophet (ṣ) was being supported by anyone other than Allah (swt), then he would have never dared to engage in such a thing. The fact that he did engage in the Mubahalah and that he brought his closest and dearest family members clearly shows that he was one hundred percent certain in regards to his message and his teachings.


When we study the life of the Prophet (ṣ), it is clear that he wasn’t someone who would act randomly or without direction; he was guided in everything that he did by Allah (swt). This event of Mubahalah further shows us how connected the Prophet (ṣ) was and how certain he was in regards to his message.  In reality, the event of Mubahalah proved the truthfulness of the Prophet (ṣ)’s message to all of the people since it showed them that he was ready to put everything on the line to disprove the claims made by Christians of Najrān.


Proving Imam Ali (a)’s Sucessorship (Wilāyah) in Light of the Event of Mubahalah


In order to demonstrate the importance of the issue of Imam Ali (a)’s Wilāyah, Grand Ayatollah Makārim Shīrāzī has referred to the well-known verse of Mubahalah in the Quran. He has also made the following remarks in response to various doubters: It is evident that the verse of Mubahalah is one of the explicit and well established verses of the Quran and it clearly proves the successorship (Wilāyah) of Imam ʿAlī (ʿa) and his children. Grand Ayatollah Makārim Shīrāzī has then continued: Some people may say that though this verse for sure serves as a sign of honor and great respect for the Imam (ʿa) and his family, but how does it prove his Wilāyah and leadership over the Muslims?  


Grand Ayatollah Makārim Shīrāzī has responded to this question by stating: There is no doubt that the term ‘our selves’ is a reference to Imam ʿAlī (ʿa). The fact that the Prophet (ṣ) considered Imam ʿAlī (ʿa) the same as his own self can be interpreted in two ways; the first is the literal meaning of this phrase, i.e. that the Prophet (ṣ) considered Imam ʿAlī (ʿa) as being the same person as himself which is clearly not a correct interpretation. The second interpretation, which involves the figurative meaning of this phrase, is that the Prophet (ṣ) considered him to be similar to him in terms of perfection, spirituality, piety, etc…. Clearly, the latter interpretation is the correct one among the two.


Considering this interpretation, it is clear that the Prophet (ṣ) considered Imam ʿAlī (ʿa) to be similar to himself in relation to his virtues and perfections, things such as his courage, his wisdom, his level of self-sacrifice, etc… The Prophet (ṣ) considered Imam ʿAlī (ʿa) to have his own rank in relation to these characteristics.  Therefore, If Allah (swt) is going to select a successor after the passing of the Prophet (ṣ), or if the Muslim community is going to select someone as a successor, then should not this individual be someone who is considered to be the most similar to the Prophet (ṣ) in characteristics and faith?


Should not an individual be selected as the Prophet’s successor who is similar to the Prophet (ṣ) in relation to their virtues and spiritual state, particularly their piety and infallibility? Would it be logical if someone other than such an individual was selected as the Prophet (ṣ)’s successor? Obviously, this would not make any logical sense. Due to this reason, the term ‘our selves’ in relation to Imam ʿAlī (ʿa) is one of the important pieces of evidence in favor of the Wilāyah and successorship of Imam ʿAlī (ʿa).


The Event of Mubahalah as Evidence for the Rank and Station of the Ahl al-Bayt (ʿa)


Grand Ayatollah Makārim Shīrāzī has referenced the 61st verse of Surah Āl ʿĪmrān as evidence in regards to the lofty rank and position of the Ahl al-Bayt (ʿa). He has said in this regard: The verse of Mubahalah is a key piece of evidence in regards to the lofty rank and position of the Ahl al-Bayt (ʿa) of the Prophet (ṣ). This verse directly references the positions of Imam ʿAlī (ʿa), Imam al-Ḥasan (ʿa), Imam al-Ḥusayn (ʿa), and Fāṭimah al-Zahrā (ʿa). There are three categories of individuals which have been mentioned in it.


These include: ‘our selves’, ‘our women’, and ‘our children’. The term ‘our sons’ is a clear reference to Imam al-Ḥasan (ʿa) and Imam al-Ḥusayn (ʿa), and there is no controversy or difference of opinion in regards to this issue. The term ‘our women’ is in reference to Fāṭimah (ʿa) and this is also agreed upon by all scholars, Shia and Sunni. The last term, which is ‘our selves’, is clearly not a reference to the Prophet (ṣ).  The reason behind this is that the verse states: ‘…say, ‘Come! Let us call our sons and your sons, our women and your women, our souls and your souls.’ When we look at this verse, it would not make sense if it were saying that the Prophet (ṣ) should call himself to come; the only possibility is that this individual must be someone other than the Prophet (ṣ).


The Acknowledgement of the Sunni Scholars that the Verse of Mubahalah was Revealed in regards to the Ahl al-Bayt (ʿa)


Grand Ayatollah Makārim Shīrāzī has explained that in addition to the authentic sources of the Shia school of thought, the vast majority of the Sunni sources have also acknowledged that the verse of Mubahalah was revealed in regards to the Ahl al-Bayt (ʿa). Grand Ayatollah Makārim Shīrāzī has stated in this regard: There are many traditions in the well-known Shia sourcebooks, as well as the Sunni references which explicitly acknowledge that the verse of Mubahalah was indeed revealed in regards to Imam ʿAlī (ʿa), Fāṭimah (ʿa), Imam al-Ḥasan (ʿa), and Imam al-Ḥusayn (ʿa).  


More than twenty of the most notable Sunni scholars have mentioned that the verse of Mubahalah was revealed in regards to these four individuals (Imam ʿAlī (ʿa), Fāṭimah (ʿa), Imam al-Ḥasan (ʿa), and Imam al-Ḥusayn (ʿa)). These scholars include: Imam al-Fakhr al-Rāzī in his well-known work of Quranic commentary (vol. 8, p. 85), al-Ṭabarī (Tārīkh al-Ṭabarī, vol. 3, p. 407), al-Suyūṭī in his commentary of al-Durr al-Manthūr (vol. 2, p. 39), al-Wāḥidī in his Asbāb al-Nuzūl (p. 68), al-Bayḍāwī in his well-known work of Quranic commentary (vol. 2, p. 47), etc…


Similarly, the renowned  leader of the Ḥanbalī school, Aḥmad bin Ḥanbal in his Musnad (vol. 1, p. 185), Muslim in his al-Ṣaḥīḥ (vol. 7, p. 120), al-Ḥākim in his Mustadrak (vol. 3, p. 150), and Ibn Ḥajar al-ʿAsqalānī in his al-‘Iṣābah (vol. 2, p. 503), etc… have all acknowledged this issue.  For example, when we look at the text Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim, in the section on the virtues of the companions in regards to the specific virtues of ʿAlī ibn Abī Ṭālib (ʿa), we find a tradition narrated from Saʿd ibn Abī Waqqāṣ where Muʿāwīyah said to Saʿd ibn Waqqāṣ: Why do you not curse and slander Abū Turāb (Imam ʿAlī (ʿa))? Saʿd replied: I heard the Prophet (ṣ) say something for which I cannot slander ʿAlī (ʿa)!  One of the things which Saʿd said was that when the verse of Mubahalah was revealed, the Prophet (ṣ) called ʿAlī, Fāṭimah, al-Ḥasan, and al-Ḥusayn. When they came, he said to them: Oh Lord! These are my Ahl al-Bayt (ʿa). Such evidence clearly indicates that the verse of Mubahalah was indeed revealed in regards to these four pure souls, alongside the Prophet (ṣ).[11]


Similarly, the following accounts can be found in yet another authentic Sunni reference: When the 61st verse of Surah Āl ʿImrān was revealed, the Prophet (ṣ) called ʿAlī, Fāṭimah, al-Ḥasan, and al-Ḥusayn. When they came, he said: Oh Lord! these are my Ahl al-Bayt (ʿa) (my family members)… [12] These types of traditions are so many in number and so widely accepted that some of the Sunni scholars consider them to be widely transmitted traditions. This means that these traditions have been so widely related and accepted that they are considered as highly authentic.


A Final Word
Mubahalah as a Last Resort

 

The encounter of Islam with other religions was with great respect and friendship. The Quran, which is the holy book of the Muslim faith, has said to the believers: ‘Do not argue with the People of the Book except in a manner which is the best.’[13] The prophets (ʿa) would continuously keep inviting the people for as long as the slightest sliver of hope remained for their guidance and reformation. They would continuously seek forgiveness for the people. It is in line with this mercy that the Prophet of Islam (ʿa) never cursed the followers of other religions (meaning he never asked Allah to punish and destroy them for their stubborn refusal to accept the clear truth) .[14]


Even in the event of Mubahalah, things only reached the stage of cursing when all other options had been exhausted and even in that instance the Prophet (s) did not curse the Christians.  For example, when we look at the 35th verse all the way through the 60th verse of Surah Āl ʿImrān (which pertain to the event of the Mubahalah), we find that they first begin the discussion with the Christians of Najrān with various topics in regards to Prophet Jesus (ʿa). These verses discuss the birth of Jesus (ʿa), his lofty rank before Allah (swt), the character and virtues of his mother, his talk with the angels, the heavenly table, and other such issues. It was only after much discussion had taken place that Allah gave permission to the Prophet (ṣ) to engage in the Mubahalah against the Christians of Najrān. This only took place after all other possible avenues had been exhausted. Even in this situation, the Prophet (ṣ) ended up not engaging in the cursing and the Christians of Najrān decided to live alongside the Muslims and pay them their taxes.  

 

Source:
Researched and edited at editorial deputy of his eminence office 
Peinevesht:
[1]. Do not argue with the People of the Book except in a manner which is best, except such of them as are wrongdoers, and say, ‘We believe in what has been sent down to us and in what has been sent down to you; our God and your God is one [and the same], and to Him do we submit.’ (29:46).
[2]. Surah Àli ‘ImrÁn, Verses 59, 60, and 61.
[3]. A person who wishes to engage in the Mubahalah must possess two necessary conditions. The first is that they must believe in what they are saying. A lying person will never engage in such a contest. The second is that the person must have a very close relationship with Allah so that when he raises his hands in prayer, his prayers are answered. The scholars of Najrān, who were three individuals (or ten according to some narrations), understood this issue when they saw the face of the Prophet (ṣ) and his family members. It was due to this reason that they abstained from participating in the Mubahalah.
[4]. Surah Àli ‘ImrÁn, Verses 61.
[5]. فَمَنْ حَاجَّكَ فِيهِ مِنْ بَعْدِ ما جاءَكَ مِنَ الْعِلْمِ فَقُلْ تَعالَوْا نَدْعُ أَبْناءَنا وَ أَبْناءَكُمْ وَ نِساءَنا وَ نِساءَكُمْ وَ أَنْفُسَنا وَ أَنْفُسَكُمْ ثُمَّ نَبْتَهِلْ فَنَجْعَلْ لَعْنَتَ اللَّهِ عَلَى الْكاذِبِينَ
[6]. «فَمَنْ حَاجَّكَ فِيهِ مِنْ بَعْدِ ما جاءَكَ مِنَ الْعِلْمِ‏»
[7]. «فَقُلْ تَعالَوْا نَدْعُ أَبْناءَنا وَ أَبْناءَكُمْ وَ نِساءَنا وَ نِساءَكُمْ وَ أَنْفُسَنا وَ أَنْفُسَكُمْ»
[8]. «ثُمَّ نَبْتَهِلْ فَنَجْعَلْ لَعْنَتَ اللَّهِ عَلَى الْكاذِبِينَ‏»
[9]. اجمع المفسّرون على ان... «انفسنا» اشارة الى على عليه السلام‏
[10]. ’Iḥqāq al-Ḥaq, vol. 3, p. 46.
[11]. Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim, vol. 4, p. 1871, hadith number 32, ch. 4.
[12]. Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim, the book of the virtues of the Companions, the chapter on the virtues of ʿAlī ibn Abī Ṭālib, third hadith with summarization.
[13]. Do not argue with the People of the Book except in a manner which is best, except such of them as are wrongdoers, and say, ‘We believe in what has been sent down to us and in what has been sent down to you; our God and your God is one [and the same], and to Him do we submit.’ (29:46).
[14]. Surah Al-‘AnkabÙt, verse 48.
Published on: « 12/15/2016 6:18:38 PM »

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POSSIBLE STRATEGIES OF THE MUSLIM WORLD AGAINST THE CRIMES AND ATROCITIES OF THE SAUDI REGIME FROM HIS EMINENCE’S POINT OF VIEW

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