The Official Website of Grand Ayatollah Makarem Shirazi

The Official Website of Grand Ayatollah Makarem Shirazi

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To Find a Way for Escaping f r o m the Reluctant Act [Bail]

Question:Is it obligatory to find a way for escaping f r o m the act which person is reluctant about performing that?
Answer: If it is possible to escape f r o m performing that by Tawriyah (to express a meaning which is not intended) then it is a precaution to use this method.

Ruling of Reluctance in case of Threatening to not Gaining Profit [Bail]

Question:Is threatening to not gaining profit effective in achievement of reluctance?
Answer: Reluctance is not applicable in case of not gaining profit.

The Reason of Prophecy of Most of Prophets to be in the Middle East [Prophecy]

Question:Why prophets have been chosen only in Mesopotamia and the Middle East? If the reason is their civilizations then why no prophet has been sent for great civilizations like Greece civilization (we shouldn't forget that his holiness Jesus (a.s.) was born in the Middle East) and Mayas or great civilizations of black people?
Is it possible to consider Confucius (in China), Buddha (in India), Zoroaster and Cyrus (in Iran), Hippocrates and Socrates (in Greece) as divine prophets?
As it has been mentioned in our religious resources that: "We chose a prophet for each two persons"; therefore, prophets should have been sent for Eskimos and all nations. And if the answer is negative then this theory will be strengthened that prophecy has been advanced by the advancement of civilizations and worships also by the advancement of the systems of thought! Because firstly humans were worshipping the sun, the moon and like them and afterwards they chose the visible god by the advancement of their system of thought. What is your opinion?
Answer: Historians agree that cradle of human civilization has moved in Middle East, and in that time neither Greece had a civilization nor anywhere else; and because appearance of religion in this region caused it to expand to other regions then God has chosen prophets f r o m this region in order for their religions to expand to other regions f r o m there.

Infallibility for other than Prophets (a.s.) and Imams (a.s.) [Prophecy]

Question:Is infallibility exclusive to Prophets (a.s.), Imams (a.s.) and her holiness Zahra (s.a.) or could it be considered for other persons?
Answer: It is certain that these superiors are infallibles but it is not certainty for the others although some of them has very high ranks and dignities.

Superiority of Believers who was not Present at the Time of Prophet (s.a.) and Infallible Imams (a.s.) [Beliefs]

Question:God didn't bring me to this world in the time of one of the fourteen infallibles (a.s.) in order for me to be able to see them, although it was possible for him to do so; while many of infidels who were not competent of seeing infallibles (a.s.) were living in that time. Is it compatible with divine justice?
Answer: It has been mentioned in some of cabbalas that: "Those who are born after the age of Prophet (s.a.) and Infallibles (a.s) and believe them, has ranks higher than those who were living in their time". If they had an advantage then this group has also an important advantage, and in this way, justice is e x e c u t ed.

To Compare Pure Imams (a.s.) with Divine Prophets (a.s.) [Prophecy]

Question:Are pure Imams (a.s.) superior to divine prophets (a.s.), except the Holy Prophet (s.a.), in cognition of God?
Answer: It is better not to compare infallibles and Awliya Allah with each other. All of them are superiors and divine lights.

Importance of the Matter of Acceptance of Guardianship of Ahl al-Bait in Acceptance of the Acts [Beliefs]

Question:By considering the importance of the issue of guardianship of Ahl al-Bait (a.s.) which is the reality of the faith and the soul of worships, and no worship including prayer and fasting and like them will be accepted by god without guardianship of Ahl al-Bait (a.s.), and cabbalas about this matter are completely reliable, do you consider prayer ancillary to guardianship or guardianship ancillary to the prayer? Which one is more important? What is the role of mourning for Imams (a.s.) especially his holiness Hussein (a.s.), which is one of the best ways of closeness to god and is the effect of that guardianship and affection which is placed in the souls of Shiites and followers of pure infallibles (a.s.), in acceptance of prayer and other worships?
Answer: The answer of your question is what is mentioned in Hadith of Imam Baqir (a.s.): "If a person performs all fasting, and worships all night, and goes to Hajj every year, and bestows all he/she has in the way of god but doesn't chose Awliya Allah as his/her guardians and doesn't perform his/her acts with their guidance then he/she will gain no benefit from these acts".

To Express the Respected Name of Imam Mahdi (a.s.) Explicitly [Imam Zaman (a.s.)]

Question:In some cabbalas, it has been mentioned that expressing the name of Imam Mahdi (a.s.) explicitly is Makrooh; therefore, some persons write the name of his holiness separately (m a h d i). Do these cabbalas also apply to our time?
Answer: I have mentioned in its proper place that these cabbalas don't apply to our time and I have explained its reasons at the end of the discussion of Taqiyya in the book "Qawaed al-Fiqh".

Claim of being Communicated to Imam Mahdi (a.s.) [Imam Zaman (a.s.)]

Question:One of the believer, while claims of having met Imam Mahdi (a.s.), says that: "Imam Mahdi (a.s.) has ordered me to do some act like building Husseiniyya, mosque and like that". He encourages people not to follow some of congregation Imams and not to pay religious funds to them and claims that Imam Mahdi (a.s.) has ordered such an order. The foresaid person has a wooden chest with some old papers and a green cloth in it. He claims that Imam Mahdi (a.s.) has given him these things! People go to his house for taking blessings f r o m this chest, assuming that this chest is really f r o m his holiness. And some of people think that his house is the place of living of Imam Mahdi (a.s.)! Even he had expressed the foresaid claim before some of scholars and says that: "I can ask your questions f r o m Imam Mahdi (a.s.)!" Are his claims correct?
Answer: There is no doubt that this person is a strongly liar person, and it is necessary for all believers to disprove and deny him and not to accept any of his expressions.

Weapon of Imam Mahdi (a.s.) at the Time of Advent [Imam Zaman (a.s.)]

Question:How could Imam Mahdi (a.s.) fight against chemical weapons, atomic bombs and heavy weapons, after the advent?
Answer: It is derived f r o m some of evidences that his holiness has some tools and equipments over their powers which disable these weapons.

Condition of Meeting Imam Mahdi (a.s.) [Imam Zaman (a.s.)]

Question:Are knowledge and virtue the conditions of meeting his holiness or expediency and time and place?
Answer: The main condition of competency of meeting his holiness is virtue in high level. But sometimes, his holiness shows his luminous face to incompetent person, even other than Shiites and non-Muslims, because of the benefits of Islam and Muslims.

The Time of Occurrence of Return [Return]

Question:When does return happens, during the life and government of his holiness Mahdi (a.s.) or after his martyrdom?
Answer: According to cabbalas, return will happen after the revolution and advent of Imam Mahdi (a.s.) and return of Imams (a.s.) is one after another after the martyrdom of Imam Mahdi (a.s.).

Intercession in Qur'an [Intercession]

Question:We Shiites believe that in the Judgment Day, Holy Prophet (s.a.), Infallible Imams (a.s.) and Fatima al-Zahra (s.a.) make intercession for some persons. I was reading Baqara Sura some while ago and saw this in verse 48 that god says: "Beware of the day in which nobody will be punished instead of another person and no intercession is accepted f r o m nobody". Please explain this matter.
Answer: Comprehending this verse is conditioned to considering other verses which have been mentioned in Qur'an about intercession, that in those verses, intercession has been proved explicitly. Like Ayat al-Kursi "مَنْ ذَاالَّذى یَشْفَعُ عِنْدَهُ اِلاّ بِاِذْنِه"; therefore, denying the intercession in the verse which you have written points that intercession is not acceptable without the permission of god. God also permits someone to be competent of intercession. Read more explanation in the first issue of the book "Tafsir –e- Nemoone" beneath the foresaid verse.

To Use Bait al-Mal for Election Advertisements [Bait al-Mal (also Baitulmal; bursary)]

Question:What is your ruling about those who have used the facilities of Bait al-Mal in election for expressing themselves to people?
Answer: Bait al-Mal has specific consumptions in which it should be consumed.

To Use Bait al-Mal for Election Advertisements [Election]

Question:What is your ruling about those who have used the facilities of Bait al-Mal in election for expressing themselves to people?
Answer: Bait al-Mal has specific consumptions in which it should be consumed.

To Use Bait al-Mal in Personal Matters for a Person to whom Bait al-Mal Owes [Bait al-Mal (also Baitulmal; bursary)]

Question:If Bait al-Mal owes money to some person but authorities don't pay that to the person then is it permissible for the person to use the facilities of Bait al-Mal equal to that amount?
Answer: The person should take the permission of religious governor.

To Use the Properties of Islamic Governments [Islamic Government]

Question:What is the ruling of using the properties of Islamic governments (other than Iran), like automobile and like that? Is it permissible to use weapons for defending the sect of twelver Shiites or the permission of religious governor is necessary?
Answer: It doesn't have problem with the permission of religious governor and for strengthening the sec of Shi'a.

Personal Use of Authorities f r o m Automobiles of Sepah [Bait al-Mal (also Baitulmal; bursary)]

Question:I am spending my military duty in Sepah forces. Accordingly, a car has been given to me in order to drive one of the authorities. He uses me and the automobile after the working hours for his personal issues. When I asked the reason of this act, he answered: "Some of the authorities of Sepah are permitted to do so because of their place". What is my duty about this matter?
Answer: If he expresses that he is permitted to do this act then it doesn't have problem for you.

Occupation in Properties of Bait al-Mal by the Authorities of Offices and Organizations [Bait al-Mal (also Baitulmal; bursary)]

Question:It is seen that some of managers and authorities of government offices and organizations use government facilities personally because of some reasons, or they give some facilities to some of the staff as a reward. What is the ruling of this act according to religious law?
Answer: Any kind of occupation in properties of Bait al-Mal, out of the boundaries of regulations, is Haraam.

Nature of Life Insurance [Types of Insurance]

Question:Please express your respected opinion about the following questions:
1) Is life insurance one of the contracts or Iqa'aat (one-way transactions)? Is it from ordinary contracts and Iqa'aat which have Fiqh titles or available titles are not compatible with that?
2) Is life insurance a kind of will of ownership or duty?
3) By considering the nature of life insurance, is it permissible for the person, who has bought the insurance, to prorate the amount which will be calculated and paid by the insurance company and to make the will about that for person including religious heirs and other than them?
4) If the person who has bought the insurance doesn't specify any person or share then the amount of life insurance paid by the insurance company will be prorated among lawful heirs, according to present laws of insurance. Is this kind of proration compatible with Fatwa of your highness?
Answer: Answer 1 to 4: Insurance is one of modern contracts which is accepted in the convention of wise persons, and if it has general conditions of contracts then it doesn't have religious problem, and it should be acted according to contract which has been made, and it is possible to specify the share of each person by percentage not by amount and the reasons of necessity of fulfillment of the pact apply to that.

To Change the Methods of Propagation of Religion [Propaganda]

Question:Do methods of religious activities need reconstruction and revision, considering the conditions and necessities of present world, and expanded aspects of cultural assault and universal communication? Which organization's duty is this? How is it possible to use modern and efficient methods? What is the duty of the government about this matter?
Answer: Undoubtedly, current methods of religious activities are not enough. For more efficiency, we should use available tools and equipments of today's world with correct planning and team work.

Pattern for the Method of Communication and Coordination of the Government with Religious Units [Seminary]

Question:What was and is the best pattern for the method of communication and coordination of government and religious units in the past and present time of Islamic countries, Christian and Jewish governments and countries, and in tradition and life of Prophet (s.a.) and pure Imams (a.s.)?
Answer: Government shouldn't disorder the independence of religious units and shouldn't intend to take them under its management; but permanent and effective supervision over them is appropriate in order not to become aberrant from the correct way, absit omen.

Establishment of Commercial and Industrial Associations of "Cartel" and "Trust" [Miscellaneous of Transactions]

Question:Please express the ruling of the two following items:
1) Cartel is a free and optional association among firms or corporations which are active in one economical field and produce similar materials or goods. The main purpose of establishing cartels is to monopolize the sale of their products.
2) Trust is the association of the units which have concentrated goal for production and sale by having a united leadership. The purpose of establishing trusts is not only monopolization also there are some other purposes like using scientific methods of production, reducing production costs, coordination of companies forming the trust and like them.
Albeit, as you know there are differences between cartel and trust which the most important difference is keeping the identity of the members in cartel and losing the independence of the members is trust. Please express religious ruling of establishing such business associations and industrial associations in the framework of cartel and trust.
Answer: If the limits of authorities are clear in both of them and there is no ambiguity about the conditions, also it doesn't cause considerable damage to the society and doesn't prevent economical growth then it doesn't have problem, but with the assumption of damage, it is not permitted to establish them.

To Pass the Entrance Exam by Cheating [Cheating]

Question:Last year, I attended the entrance exam of master degree with bachelor of civil engineering and unfortunately, I filled out the answer sheet by complete cheating (100%), the act which I myself don't know its reason now. After announcing the results, I have been chosen for the master degree in September, this year. By considering that selection is performed based on scientific degree, I have abused a person's right and accordingly, I condemn myself and I intend to quit studying. Please say that what is my duty?
Answer: In the assumptions of the question, if your withdrawal causes another person, who is in turn, to be chosen then it is necessary for you to withdraw, but if the time is passed then withdrawal is not necessary. But try not to cheat anymore in the future and compensate the previous mistake and the abused right by good acts of the future on behalf of the right owner.

Properties of Beggars [Beggary]

Question:By considering that beggary is not confronted as a crime in the society, sometimes some persons perform beggary with the excuse of being poor and needy, and philanthropists give them money by seeing their appearance and condition. A contract has been made for collecting the beggars f r o m the city and municipality and police are in charge of collecting them and welfare organization is in charge of keeping them in a center called "Hedayat" (guidance). And during the time in which there are being held in this center until they are given to their families, they need bath, food, clothes, haircut etc. please say that:
1) According to the regulation which has been ordered f r o m the organization to the center, 15,000 rials is being taken f r o m each person for each 24 hours in order to keep them in the center. Is it legitimate to take this amount? If it is legitimate then what is the ruling if extra amount has been taken f r o m them? (It should be considered that this money is being consumed for themselves or other beggars.)
2) Some of the beggars are insane and has lost their wisdom, and some of them have enormous amounts of money and no family, and we have to send them to their cities after some days because we cannot keep them forever and there is the fear that they lose their money. Is it permissible to take their money to give it to the welfare organization in order to be consumed for other persons who are under support of the organization?
Answer: Firstly, by considering that this matter is complicated according to religious law, it should be acted with care and precaution in order not to make a mistake Insha'Allah.
Secondly, those beggars who have enormous amounts of money, their money is included in moneys with unknown owner, except the costs of one year which is for them and it doesn't have problem to consume extra amounts for other poor persons. And those who have few amount of money, the money is for them and it is permitted to consume the money for their costs. But 15,000 rials a day is too much in change of the services which are being given to them, except that they are really ill and this amount is needed for 24 hours.
Thirdly, money of those who are incapable shouldn't be consumed for the others because they will need money again after one year.

Religious Ruling of Beggary [Beggary]

Question:As you know, Islamic criminal code has considered beggary as a crime in the articles 612 and 613 and has specified the punishment of imprisonment for this crime. Please express your respected opinion about the criminal condition and religious prohibition of that and please say that which legal resource is responsible for prevention, pursuit and verification of that in Islamic Government?
Answer: It is Haraam for a person who is not in need to perform beggary and even in case of need, Islamic government should plan the ways in order to provide their needs honorably. And execution of this order is upon police and judiciary forces or another organization which is specified by the government.

To Take War Compensation ( [Solatium]

Question:The UN has taken some money f r o m the government of Iraq and is giving that to the citizens of Kuwait who have exited Kuwait or has bore losses in the war of Iraq and Kuwait as the compensation and for oil money. Is it legitimate to take this money, which is the right of people of Iraq?
Answer: If they have bore losses then they can take as the amount of their loss.

Religious Ruling of Intellectual Property (Rights of the Author, Translator …) [Miscellaneous of Transactions]

Question:Please answer the two following questions:
1) Is intellectual property like the rights of author, translator, copy and invention legitimate?
2) What is your fatwa about monopolization of business of main goods?
Answer: Answer 1 & 2: Authors' rights and copyright, also rights of using an invention are valid rights which are not possible to be abused. But if monopolization of business is for example by a factory that says: "It offers its product exclusively to a retailer" then it doesn't have problem, and if the purpose is that a person or a group has the right of selling a thing exclusively and others don't have this right then such thing is illegitimate, except that Islamic government considers it necessary because of some interests.

Monopolization of Main Goods Business [Printing Rights]

Question:Please answer the two following questions:
1) Is intellectual property like the rights of author, translator, copy and invention legitimate?
2) What is your fatwa about monopolization of business of main goods?
Answer: Answer 1 & 2: Authors' rights and copyright, also rights of using an invention are valid rights which are not possible to be abused. But if monopolization of business is for example by a factory that says: "It offers its product exclusively to a retailer" then it doesn't have problem, and if the purpose is that a person or a group has the right of selling a thing exclusively and others don't have this right then such thing is illegitimate, except that Islamic government considers it necessary because of some interests.
All Pages : 179