Quranic Evidence that the Prophet of Islam (ṣ) Was the Final Messenger

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Quranic Evidence that the Prophet of Islam (ṣ) Was the Final Messenger

Question: What evidence is there in the Quran that shows that the Prophet Muḥammad (ṣ) was the final messenger?
Concise answer:
Detailed answer: There are numerous verses in the Quran which show that the Prophet of Islam (ṣ) was in fact the last and final messenger to humanity. Let us bring several of these verses forward in order to understand the reality of this matter:
 
1. [1] (مَا کانَ مُحَمَّدٌ أَبا أَحَد مِنْ رِجَالِکُمْ وَ لکِنْ رَسُولَ اللّهِ وَ خاتَمَ النَّبِیّینَ وَ کَانَ اللّهُ بِکُلِّ شَیْء عَلِیماً)

“Muhammad is not the father of any man among you, but he is the Apostle of Allah and the Seal of the Prophets, and Allah has knowledge of all things.”

Later in Islamic history, there was an event in which the Prophet (ṣ) married a lady by the name of Zaynab, who had previously been the wife of Zayd (his adopted son), in order to wipe out an incorrect custom that was prevalent amongst the pre Islamic Arabs. This marriage created much controversy amongst those who had weak faith in Islam and the Prophet (ṣ), and they went as far as asking one another why the Prophet (ṣ) had done such an action and married the previous wife of his adopted son.

God removed these misguided ideas through the revelation of the aforementioned Quranic verse. The verse explains to the people that the Prophet (ṣ) is not the father of anyone who is not from his biological line and Zayd is his adopted son, so clearly he cannot be considered to be his biological son. Due to this reason, marriage with his previous wife is not a problem. The verse then continues and explains that he is the ‘Seal of the Prophets’ and the last prophet that has been sent, and his message will remain until the end of time. This is one unique method which God used in order to destroy this incorrect custom that was prevalent up until that time.
 
2. [2](تَبارَک الَّذی نَزَّلَ الْفُرقانَ عَلى عَبْدِهِ لِیَکُونَ لِلْعالَمینَ نَذِیراً)

“Blessed is He who sent down the Criterion to His servant that he may be a warner to all the nations.”

This verse explicitly explains that the Quran was sent down to the Prophet (ṣ) as a message and warning to the people and this is something that began with the revelation and will last up until the Day of Judgment. Imam Ṣādiq (Ýa) has explained that the meaning of the term ÝĀlamīn is in reference to all of humanity and God has considered each human being as an ÝĀlam in and of himself. The Imam (Ýa) also said: There are two ÝĀlāms; the greater ÝĀlam is the world of creation, while the smaller ÝĀlam is that of human beings and this is because the role of the creation of the human being had certain commonalities with the creation of the world.[3]
 
3. [4](إِنَّ الّذینَ کَفَرُوا بِالذِّکْرِ لَمّا جاءَهُمْ وَ إِنَّهُ لَکِتابٌ عَزیرٌ* لایَأْتیهِ الْباطِلُ مِنْ بَیْنِ یَدَیْهِ وَ لا مِنْ خَلْفِهِ تَنْزیلٌ مِنْ حَکیم حَمید)

“Indeed those who defy the Reminder when it comes to them. . . . Indeed it is an august Book:

falsehood cannot approach it, from before it nor from behind it, a [gradually] sent down [revelation] from One all-wise, all-laudable.”

In this verse of the Quran the intent behind the term Dhikr is that of the Quran itself. These other verses of the Quran are proof of this:

[5](إِنّا نَحْنُ نَزَّلْنَا الذِّکْرَ وَ إِنّا لَهُ لَحافِظُونَ)

“Indeed We have sent down the Reminder, and indeed We will preserve it.”

[6](وَ قالُوا یا أَیُّهَا الَّذی نُزِّلَ عَلَیْهِ الذِّکْرُ إِنَّکَ لَمَجْنُونٌ)

“They said, ‘O you, to whom the Reminder has been sent down, you are indeed crazy.”

[7](وَ أَنْزَلْنا إِلَیْکَ الذِّکْرَ لِتُبَیِّنَ لِلنّاسِ ما نُزِّلَ إِلَیْهِمْ وَ لَعَلَّهُمْ یَتَفَکَّروُنَ)

“[and sent them] with manifest proofs and s c r i p tures. We have sent down the reminder to you so that you may clarify for the people that which has been sent down to them, so that they may reflect.”

In all of these verses, the term Dhikr has been used for the Quran and the pronoun Lā YaÞtīhī is referring to the word Dhikr as well. Therefore, the original verse that we mentioned can be explained in the following words: the Quran is a book which can never be affected by falsehood. Falsehood can be explained through several ways. The first is that the verses cannot be altered or distorted in any way; the Quran is safeguarded from this. The second is that its verses cannot be abrogated by any other revelation. The third is that all of the statements made in the Quran are all truthful and will come to pass exactly as described. If anything other than this took place, then it would show the Quran to be untruthful. The verse clearly shows that none of these aforementioned points can be true in regards to the Quran and this book will remain a proof for the people up until the Day of Judgment.

This meaning is also further bolstered by the following verse which states:

[8](إِنّا نَحْنُ نَزَّلْنَا الذِّکْرَ وَ إِنّا لَهُ لَحافِظُونَ)

“Indeed We have sent down the Reminder, and indeed We will preserve it.”
According to the meaning of this verse, the Quran is a book of everlasting truth which cannot be touched by falsehood and it will remain as such until the Day of Judgment. In short, the proof of the Quran is everlasting and this makes the message of the Prophet (ṣ) also everlasting, since they are one and the same. Due to this reason the laws of Islam will also remain and no other prophet or code of law will come after.
 
4. (وَ أُوحِیَ إِلَیَّ هذَا الْقُرانُ لأُنْذِرَکُمْ بِهِ وَ مَنْ بَلَغَ)

“…and this Qur’an has been revealed to me that I may warn thereby you…”

The late Shaykh Ṭabarsī has written the following in his commentary of this verse: ‘It means that this Quran has been revealed to me in order that it will warn and frighten all of the people of the divine punishment and this includes all of the people up until the Day of Judgment. The Prophet (ṣ) himself said: Whoever hears my invitation towards Tawḥīd and the worship of God, the Quran has indeed reached him. This means that the proof has been given to him and some scholars have even said that whoever receives the Quran is like one who has seen the Prophet (ṣ) and heard the teachings of Islam from him. Wherever the Quran goes, it invites the people towards the worship of God and warns them of the punishment of the hereafter.’[9]

5. [10](وَ ما أَرْسَلْناکَ إِلاّ کافّةً لِلنّاسِ بَشیراً وَ نَذِیراً وَ لکِنَّ أَکْثَرَ النّاسِ لا یَعْلَمُونَ)

“We did not send you except as a bearer of good news and warner to all mankind, but most people do not know.”

After studying this verse indepthly, it is understood that the term KāffahÞ is used to mean the overall people and so the verse is saying that we have sent you for all of the people. This is in reality the same as saying that the Prophet’s (ṣ) message applies to all nations and is eternal. In conclusion, it must be said that the verses which show that the Prophet (ṣ) was indeed the final messenger are of two basic categories: The first verse: (وَلکِنْ رَسُولَ اللّهِ وَ خاتَمَ النَّبِیینَ) explicitly states that the gate of prophethood has been permanently closed, whether it relates to the type of prophet who brings a new message or the type of prophet who simply preaches the message of a preceding prophet. The second category involves the other four verses which state that no other code of law or divine book will abrogate that of the Quran and the religion of Islam.[11][12]

 



Peinevesht: [1] Surah Aḥzāb, verse 40.

[2] Surah Furqān, verse 1.

[3] MajmaÝ al-bayān, vol. 4, p. 282. Various verses of the Quran confirm the words of Imam Ṣādiq (Ýa) when he said that the intent of the term ÝĀlamīn was that of human beings. For example, refer to the following: Surah ShuÝarāÞ, verse 165.

[4] Surah Fuṣṣilat, verse 41 and 42.

[5] Surah Ḥijr, verse 9.

[6] Surah Ḥijr, verse 6.

[7] Surah Naḥl, verse 44.

[8] Surah Ḥijr, verse 9.

[9] MajmaÝ al-bayān, vol. 4, p. 282.

[10] Surah SabāÞ, verse 28.

[11] It worthy to note that there are other verses in the Quran on this subject that we have not mentioned. We did not mention them for the sake of brevity.

[12] Manshūr Jāvīd, vol. 7, p. 317-336.
Published on: « 1393/02/16 »
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