He was the son of Imam Husayn ibn ‘Ali (‘a), the third Imam of the Shia world, and his mother was Shahr Bānūwiyah.
Ali bin Yaqtin who acted as Imam Musa al-Kazim’s secret agent in the palace of Harun, would secretly send the Imam his Khums, and occasionally, although extremely dangerous and risky, he would send the Imam financial aid.
Harun was extremely unhappy by the fact that even with all his power and influence, he felt the hearts of the people were still with Imam Musa al-Kazim (‘a). He tried tirelessly and desperately to eradicate this spiritual influence and penetration of the Imam in the people’s hearts.
Musa was son to the sixth Shiite Imam, Jafar al-Sadiq, and Hamidah. He was born in Abuwa, a small city on the outskirts of Medina.
The Imam responded with the verse in which God addresses the Prophet (saww) saying “Say, ‘My Lord has only forbidden indecencies, the outward among them and the inward ones, and sin and undue aggression....”
After the tragedy of Karbala, Yazīd’s agents began to use the Jabrīyah ideology, and publicized his apparent victory against Imam Husayn (‘a) as being the will of God. To these ends, ‘Ubaydullah ibn Zīyād gathered the people at Kūfah’s main mosque, so that there, they could be told of what had taken place. He gave himself an aura of religiosity and began to say to the people: ‘I praise God who made the truth victorious and aided Amīr al-Mu’minīn (Yazīd) and his companions, and killed the liar, the son of the liar!’
When Zaynab (‘a) saw the bloodied head of Imam Husayn (‘a) in the gathering that Yazīd had organized, she cried out in a grief stricken voice and said: Oh Husayn, oh beloved of the Prophet of God (ṣ), oh child of Mecca and Minā, oh son of Fatimah Zahra’, the master of all the men of the world, oh son of the daughter of Muhammad Muṣṭafā.
At this point in time, Zaynab (‘a) had lost six or seven of her brothers; her son had been killed, ten of her nephews had been killed, and she and what was left of her family had been taken captive by the forces of Yazīd. In spite of all of this, she was put in a position where she had to defend herself and fight against what had happened to her and her family.
Oh son of the freed ones! Is this justice that your wives, daughters, and servants are sitting in the seats of honor, while you have enslaved the daughters of the Prophet (ṣ), disrespected them, stifled their cries, and allowed strangers (unrelated men) to take them from one city to another on the backs of camels?
The Ninth Imam (‘a) was named Muhammad, his Kunyah was Abū Ja’far, and his titles were Taqī and Jawad; he was born in the holy month of Ramaḍān/Rajab in the year 195 Hijrī in the city of Medina.
In spite of all that was mentioned in regards to fulfillment of the imamate in one’s youth, still the issue of Imam al-Jawad’s (‘a) age was not yet fully resolved. Not only was it not yet resolved for many of the ordinary Shias, but it was also debated and discussed by some of the scholars and notables as well.
The Ghulāt were one of the deviant and misguided groups, which were active during the Imamate of Imam Hadi (‘a). While the Ghullāt considered themselves as being Shia, their ideology and beliefs were utterly deviant and outside the fold of the Shia creed. They had certain exaggerated beliefs in regards to the Imam (‘a) and considered him as a divine being.
Hishām ibn ‘Abd al-Malik, one of the caliphs during the time of Imam Baqir (‘a), was always fearful of the Imam’s (‘a) extraordinary rank and the people’s love towards him. Since he also knew that his followers considered him to be the Imam, he was perpetually working to prevent the spread of the spiritual influence of these followers, as well as an increase in their numbers.
How did Hishām react to the news that Imam Baqir ('a) had defeated the Christian Arch Bishop in debate?
Before Imam Baqir (‘a) left the city of Damascus, a particularly amazing opportunity presented itself to awaken the minds of the masses. Through this opportunity, the people were also allowed to see a manifestation of the Imam’s (‘a) learning and knowledge.
It was mentioned previously that Imam Baqir (‘a) lived contemporaneously with 5 of the Umayyid caliphs. We will mention the particularities of each during their time of rule and their administration of the society. This will make evident the social and political conditions and circumstances which Imam Baqir (‘a) lived in during his life.
Hishām ordered the governor of Medina to send for Imam Baqir (‘a) and his son, Ja’far ibn Muhammad (‘a) and to tell them to come to Syria. Without having a choice, the Imam (‘a) and his son (‘a) left for Damascus and they soon arrived there. Hishām had decided to set up an archery competition in order to embarrass the Imam (‘a). Hishām assumed that with the defeat of the Imam (‘a) in such a competition, he would be lowered in the view of the people. In addition, even though the Imam (‘a) had arrived in Damascus, he postponed their meeting for three days.
He is famously known for analyzing and explaining various intellectual issues. He brought about an extensive movement in learning and science, and laid the foundations for an Islamic university, which reached its zenith in the time of his son Imam Sadiq(‘a).
Imam Baqir (‘a) was born in the year 57 Hijrī, in the city of Medina. He was 39 years old at the time of the death of his father, Imam Zayn al-’Abidīn (‘a) (who passed away in 94 Hijrī). His name was Muhammad, while his kunya was Abū Ja’far, and his agnomens were Baqir and Baqir al-’Ūlūm.
The love that the Prophet (ṣ) had towards his daughter Fatimah (‘a) is an indication of the existence of these virtues within her.
From the context of this chapter, it can be understood that it is in reference to the Lady Fatimah (‘a) and the reason behind this is that the lineage of the Prophet (ṣ) spread throughout the world through her children.
The Lady Fatimah (‘a) delivered a fiery sermon in defense of Imam ‘Ali (‘a) even while she was bedridden with her illness.
From the verses of the Quran and the traditions, we can come to the conclusion that the Lady Fatimah ('a) was from the infallibles.
From the very beginning of Islam, the Lady Fatimah (‘a) was an aid and support for her father.
Imam Ṣādiq (‘a) was well known for his positive characteristics amongst his contemporaries
Abū Ḥanīfah, ‘Abdullah ibn Abī Sharmah, and Ibn Abī Laylā all went to meet with Imam Ja’far Ṣādiq (‘a)