The events of Muharram 10th as narrated by Grand Ayatollah Makarem Shirazi

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The chronicle of events of Muharram:

The events of Muharram 10th as narrated by Grand Ayatollah Makarem Shirazi

Imam Ḥusayn (ʿa) chants prayers on ʿĀshūrā morning/Imam Ḥusayn (ʿa)’s sermon on ʿĀshūrā morning/ Imam Ḥusayn (ʿa)’s heroic speech directed at the enemy army/Ḥurr ibn Yazid Riyāḥī regrets being against Imam Ḥusayn (ʿa) and comes to fight for the Imam/Battle Commences: a number of Imam Ḥusayn (ʿa)’s companions are killed in the first wave of the attacks/The martyrs of the first wave of the attacks on the day of ʿĀshūrā/Single combats commence and Imam Ḥusayn (ʿa)’s companions are martyred one by one/Noontime and Imam Ḥusayn (ʿa)’s last prayer/The martyrdom of the last companions of the Imam/Imam Ḥusayn (ʿa)’s last stand and martyrdom/What happened after Imam Ḥusayn (ʿa)’s martyrdom/ Imam Ḥusayn (ʿa)’s weapons and clothes are plundered/The pillage of the camp/ The burning down of Imam Ḥusayn (ʿa)’s camp/The trampling of the martyrs’ bodies/Sending the sacred head of Imam Ḥusayn (ʿa) to Kūfah.

Muharram 10th is the day of ʿĀshūrā, an unforgettable day in the history of Islam and that of the Shiʻa school; it is the day of the self-sacrifice[1] and martyrdom of the Master of all martyrs, Imam Ḥusayn (ʿa), and his loyal companions in 61 Ah., in Karbala[2].     

Imam Ḥusayn (ʿa) chants prayers on ʿĀshūrā morning

Imam ʿAli ibn Al Ḥusayn (ʿa) is quoted as saying: “On the day of ʿĀshūrā when the enemy troops were advancing toward us, Imam Ḥusayn (ʿa) raised his hands in prayer and implored[3]:

اللَّهُمَّ أَنْتَ ثِقَتي في كُلِّ كَرْبٍ، وَ أَنْتَ رَجائي في كُلِّ شِدَّةٍ...

 

O’ Lord! You are my support in all times of grief, and You are my hope in all times of adversity, and You are the One I rely on in the face of all difficulties that befall me …””[4]

 

 

Imam Ḥusayn (ʿa)’s epical sermon on ʿĀshūrā morning

Then the Imam (ʿa) came before the enemy lines, looking at the huge army [5]and their commander, Umar ibn Saʿd, who was among a group of notable Kūfians . Then he began talking to them, saying:

All praise belongs to Allah who created this world and made it a mortal and perishable abode which constantly transforms the state of its inhabitants to another; deceived is he who is captivated by the glitters of this world …[6]

 

Imam Ḥusayn (ʿa)’s heroic speech directed at the enemy army

When Umar ibn Saʿd prepared his army to confront Imam Ḥusayn (ʿa)[7] and mobilized his army to surround the Imam’s camp from every direction to launch the final attack, Imam Ḥusayn (ʿa) came before them and said[8]:

O’ people! May destruction and unending grief be upon you! You invited us so enthusiastically here to help you, and we rushed to help you and came hastily to your aid! Now that we have come to you, how would you use against us the weapons you so solemnly vowed to use for us?!

And how would you stoke the flames of a sedition which our enemy and your enemy has prepared against us?! How would you take up arms to aid your own enemies against your friends, without they having treated you justly or granted you any of your wishes?!

The only thing you covet is a trifling sum and a lowly life, and you are ready to kill us for them while we have not committed any sin nor have we offended you in any way to deserve your revenge …[9] 

 

Ḥurr ibn Yazid al-Riyāḥī regrets being against Imam Ḥusayn (ʿa) and comes to fight for the Imam

Ḥurr ibn Yazid al-Riyāḥī was an honorable man from Kūfah and he was the chief of his clan. Ibn Ziad had appointed him the commander of a thousand men to go and prevent Imam Ḥusayn (ʿa) from entering the city of Kūfah.

But on the day of ʿĀshūrā, when he realized that Ibn Saʿd was intent on fighting and killing the Imam, he suddenly began shaking at the magnitude of the crime they were going to commit. So he mounted his horse and began moving away from Yazid’s army slowly, and he finally came to Imam Ḥusayn (ʿa)’s camp[10].

He came directly to the Imam and said: “I have come to you to repent and to fight for you and protect you to the last breath[11] and until I am killed before you; will my repentance be accepted?[12]

Imam Ḥusayn (ʿa) replied kindly:

نَعَمْ، يَتُوبُ اللَّهُ عَلَيْكَ وَيَغْفِرُ لَكَ

Yes; Allah will accept your repentance and forgive your sins[13].[14]

 

Battle Commences: a number of Imam Ḥusayn’s (ʿa) companions are killed in the first wave of the attacks

On the Day of ʿĀshūrā, Umar ibn Saʿd aimed and shot an arrow at the companions of the Imam and said to his troops: “You will be my witnesses before the Emir [ʿUbydullah ibn Ziad] that I was the first man who shot an arrow at them!”

And following him, his army rained down arrows on the Imam and his small army[15]. The battle commenced and the companions of the Imam (ʿa) went to battle to hold off the enemy and they went on fighting for a few hours until a large number of them were martyred.[16]

 

The martyrs of the first wave of the attacks

There is some controversy among the historians regarding the number of the companions of the Imam who were martyred in the first waves of the attacks on the day of ʿĀshūrā. Some accounts have estimated the number of martyrs up to forty men. Ibn Shahrāshūb, however, believes that 28 men were martyred in the first wave of the attacks.[17]

These men were the most loyal companions of the Imam who considered defending their Imam and the Prophet’s Ahl-al-Bayt their duty[18] and had consciously and knowingly chosen this dangerous path[19].

 

Single combats commence and Imam Ḥusayn (ʿa)’s companions are martyred one by one

At length, only a few of the Imam’s companions remained and so they began engaging in single combats with the enemy, one by one sacrificing their lives to protect their Imam.

One of these men was Burayr ibn Khuzayr Hamdānī. He was an ascetic man and extremely courteous and well-mannered and used to be one of the companions of Amir al-Mu’minīn (ʿa). He was also the master of the reciters of the Quran in Kūfah; he would stay in the mosque and teach everybody the recitation of the Quran.[20]

On the day of ʿĀshūrā and amid his fight with one of the enemy soldiers, he struck him down and sat on his chest to finish him off but another man attacked him from behind and drove his spear in to his back. As he fell down a large number of enemy soldiers attack him and struck him to death with their weapons.[21]

Then, ʿAmr ibn Ḥajjāj who was the commander of the left wing of Umar ibn Saʿd’s army launched an attack on the right wing of Imam Ḥusayn (ʿa)’s army which was led by Zuhayr ibn Qayn. One of the men who took part in this fierce battle was Muslem ibn ʿAwsajah.[22]

When the battle ended, the men saw Muslem ibn ʿAwsajah lying on the ground, dipped in his own blood. So Imam Ḥusayn (ʿa) and Ḥabīb ibn Muẓāhir went to him to bring his body back to the camp.[23]

After that, Zuhar ibn Qayn went to battle and fought valiantly[24] until after having sustained horrendous injuries, he fell off his horse and was martyred by the enemy soldiers.[25]

As noon was drawing near, Imam Ḥusayn’s army shrank rapidly: his companions were killed one by one in battle and their absence was very conspicuous. The enemy losses, however, were not conspicuous at all because their ranks were replenished quickly as they were an army of thirty thousand men.

At noon, Ḥabīb ibn Muẓāhir, who was appointed the commander of the left wing of the Imam’s army, was also martyred in battle[26].

 

Noontime and Imam Ḥusayn (ʿa)’s last prayer

At noon, Imam Ḥusayn (ʿa) stopped fighting and stood up to perform the Ẓuhr Prayer despite all arrows comeing down on him. So the enemy kept raining down arrows on the Imam and his companions while they were performing their Ẓuhr Prayer and a few men, including ʿAmr ibn Qarẓah, were shielding the Imam from the incoming arrows.

When the Imam finished his prayer, ʿAmr ibn Qarẓah and Saied ibn Abdullah fell down having taken several arrows for protecting the Imam. As he was drawing his last breaths, ʿAmr asked Imam Ḥusayn (ʿa):

أَوَفَيْتُ يا ابْنَ رَسُولِ اللَّه

“Did I fulfill my promise and my duty to you, O’ son of the Messenger of Allah (ṣ)?”[27]

The Imam replied:

نَعَمْ، أَنْتَ أَمامِي فِي الْجَنَّةِ فَاقْرَءْ رَسُولَ اللَّهَ مِنّي السَّلامُ وَأَعْلِمْهُ أَنّي فِي الْأَثَرِ

Yes, you have indeed fulfilled you duty and you shall go to Paradise before me; say hello to the Messenger of Allah (ṣ)[28] for me and inform him that I will follow shortly[29]

With his last smile at the good news he was given, ʿAmr took a last breath, then moved no more[30].[31]

 

The martyrdom of the last companions of the Imam

After performing their prayer, the Imam’s companions were ever more heartened and so they launched a final assault on the enemy. By ʿĀshūrā afternoon, all of the men, including all the companions, and the Imam’s relatives from the Bani-Hāshem clan, including his brothers, nephews, and cousins had been killed trying to protect their Imam.

The history will never forget the heroic fight of the Imam’s companions including Zuhayr ibn Qayn, Nāfiʿ ibn Hilāl, Muselm ibn ʿAwsajah, Ḥabīb ibn Muẓāhir, Ḥurr ibn Yazid al-Riyāḥī on the one hand, and his family members incuding ʿAli al-Akbar (ʿa), Abbas ibn ʿAli (ʿa), Qāsim ibn al-Ḥassan (ʿa), and Abdullah ibn Muslem (ʿa) on the other.

When each of these men entered the fray, they struck fear in to the hearts of the enemies and their fall broke the Imam’s heart one more time.

On ʿĀshūrā afternoon, Imam Ḥusayn (ʿa) stood at the middle of the battlefield, looking around for any helpers, but he could not find any of his companions or family members standing; all those heroes had fallen and now the Imam was left alone.

Surrounded by what seemed like an ocean of enemy troops, the Imam (ʿa) called out to his loyal companions[32]:

O’ Muslem ibn Aqīl! O’ Hilāl ibn Nāfiʿ! O’ Hānī ibn ʿUrwah! O’ Zuhayr ibn Qayn! O’ Yazid ibn Muẓāhir! O’ Yaḥyā ibn Kathīr! O’ Ḥabīb ibn Muẓāhir! O’ Ibrahim ibn Ḥuṣain! O’ ʿUmayr ibn Muṭāʿ! O’ Asad al-Kalbī! O’ Abdullah ibn ʿAqīl! O’ Muslem ibn ʿAwsajah! O’ Dāwūd ibn Ṭirimmāḥ! O’ Ḥurr al-Riyāḥī! O’ ʿAli ibn al-Ḥusayn!

O’ Brave and loyal men! O’ great warriors! Why is it that when I call you, you no longer answer my call, and when I speak to you, you no longer listen to me?! Have you fallen asleep so I may have hope in waking you? Or have you disowned your Imam and have, hence, stopped helping him … ?![33]    

 

Imam Ḥusayn (ʿa)’s last stand and martyrdom

When he had no one else to fight by his side, Imam Ḥusayn (ʿa) went to his last remaining son, Imam al-Sajjād (ʿa) to prepare him for assuming the responsibility of protecting the outcomes of the self-sacrifice he and his companions had made in Karbala.

He made his last will to his son and advised all his sisters and daughters to obey Imam al-Sajjād (ʿa) as their Imam after his martyrdom.[34]

When he finished his talk with his son and was ready to make his last stand, Imam Ḥusayn (ʿa) said: “bring me some old clothes; I want to wear them underneath my other clothes so no one would take them off my body after I am killed, for I know that they will plunder my clothes after I am killed”[35].

According to historical accounts, when Imam Ḥusayn (ʿa) saw all his seventy two companions killed, he went near his camp and called out to his sisters and daughters:

يا سُکینة! يا فاطِمَةُ! يا زَيْنَبُ! يا امَّ كُلْثُومِ! عَلَيْكُنَّ مِنِّي السَّلامُ

O’ Sukaynah! O’ Fatima! O’ Zeynab! O’ Umm-Kulthūm! Farewell![36]

Then the Imam mounted his horse and came before the enemy lines[37], asking for opponents; the enemy champions and warriors kept coming forth to fight the Imam, but he killed whoever came forth. The single combats went on until the Imam had killed a large number of enemy champions and warriors[38].

Then the Imam attacked the enemy lines striking and kiling whoever was within reach and as he fought his way through the enemy lines, arrows kept raining down on him from every side, piercing his body from every direction.[39]

The Imam kept fighting until he had sustained extensive injuries[40].[41] According to a related tradition, on one of the occasions when the enemy rained down arrows on the Imam, one of the arrows pierced his neck; the Imam chanted:

 “بِسْمِ اللَّهِ وَ لا حَوْلَ وَ لا قُوَّةَ إِلّا بِاللَّهِ، وَ هذا قَتيلٌ في رضا اللَّهِ

In the Name of Allah, there is no power nor might except from Allah, and this is he who is slain in the Way of Allah’ satisfaction[42]

 

Exhausted by the heavy activity of the battle the Imam stopped to rest a little when suddenly someone stroke him on the forehead with a rock . The Imam’s forehead was broken and blood began to gush down, covering his eyes. He raised the bottom of his shirt to wipe the blood off his eyes but a poisonous arrow pierced his chest and the Imam fell off his horse.[43]

Waiting for the right moment, when the Imam was no longer able to defend himself, Shimr ibn Dhiljawshan came running and sat on Imam Ḥusayn’s chest. He then grabbed the Imam’s beard and prepared to sever the sacred head of the Imam.

No sooner had he made a move than the Imam opened his eyes, smiled at him and said: “You intend to kill me though you know who I am?!

Shimr replied: “Yes, I know you very well; your mother is Fatima (ʿa) daughter of the Prophet, your father is ʿAli (ʿa), and your grandfather is Muhammad (ṣ)! I will kill you and that is no problem for me!” Then he went on and severed the Imam’s head with twelve strikes of his knife[44].[45]  

May Allah’s unbounded blessing and peace be upon Imam Ḥusayn (ʿa) and his loyal companions who sacrificed their lives to expose the enemies of Islam who were undermining the religion from within.

Imam Ḥusayn’s uprising later stirred up other uprisings against the Umayyad tyrants, and they were finally toppled by the abundance of popular uprisings against them.[46]

 

What happened after Imam Ḥusayn (ʿa)’s martyrdom

After the tragic martyrdom of Imam Ḥusayn (ʿa) and his companions, the ruthless enemies of the Ahl-al-Bayt (ʿa) did not stop committing crimes; they went on perpetrating some of the most horrendous and unspeakable crimes anyone has ever committed in the human history. What follows is the des c r i p tion of some of these crimes[47].

 

The plundering of Imam Ḥusayn (ʿa)’s weapons and clothes

Upon killing the Imam, Umar ibn Saʿd’s ruthless troops rushed toward the Imam’s body and plundered all his weapons and clothes. According to some historical accounts, some of them were so rude as to try to plunder the Imam’s belongings and clothes even before he was martyred.[48]

 

The pillage of the camp

After plundering the Imam’s clothes and other belongings, the enemy troops, let by Shimr ibn Dhiljawsahn, surrounded Imam Ḥusayn’s camp, where only women and children remained frightened in the tents.

Then he ordered his soldiers to enter the tents and loot whatever they could get their hands on.[49] Shimr, however, went to Imam al-Sajjād’s tent with a number of his soldiers. It is noteworthy that Imam al-Sajjād (ʿa) was extremely sick at the time and was lying on his bed.

One of Shimr’s men said: “will you not kill this sick young man?”

Hamid ibn Muslem, a man from Umar ibn Saʿd’s army who was charged with writing and recording the events of Karbala, said: “Glory to Allah! Who kills a sick teenager?! His sickness suffices him!” He went on arguing with them until he dissuaded them from killing the Imam[50]. [51]

 

The burning down of Imam Ḥusayn (ʿa)’s camp

One of the shocking crimes committed by Umar ibn Saʿd’ troops on ʿĀshūrā evening was burning down the camp and the tents of the Prophet’s Ahl-al-Bayt (ʿa).

This atrocious act was committed while the shredded bodies of Imam Ḥusayn (ʿa) and his companions were left lying bare on the hot earth of Karbala, and all the jewelries and belongings of the women of the Ahl-al-Bayt had been looted.

The sun which had witnessed some of the most astonishing and heart-rending incidents in the history of mankind was now setting and it was getting dark.

At such a grievous time when all the remaining members of the Prophet’s Ahl-al-Bayt were severely grief-stricken, the enemy attacked one last time to burn the tents of those helpless women and children to the ground.[52]

 

The trampling of the martyrs’ bodies

On the orders of Ibn Ziad, Ibn Saʿd was to make his soldiers ride horses on the bodies of the martyrs, after their death, to trample their bodies in to shreds. So on ʿĀshūrā evening, he called out to his men, hoping to endear himself by so doing to Ibn Ziad and persuade him to appoint him the ruler of Rey:

مَنْ يَنْتَدِبُ لِلْحُسَيْن عليه السلام فَيُوطِيَ الْخَيْلَ صَدْرَهُ وَ ظَهْرَهُ

Who is ready to ride his horse on Ḥusayn’s body to trample it and break his chest and back[53]?[54]

Shimr, who was a truly ruthless man, volunteered first and ten others followed him and rode horses on the martyr’s bodies, trampling their bodies completely.[55]

 

 

 

Sending the sacred head of Imam Ḥusayn (ʿa) to Kūfah

As he was impatient to give ʿUbaydullah ibn Ziad the news of his victory, Umar ibn Saʿd ordered Khūlī ibn Yazid, and Ḥamid ibn Muslem on ʿĀshūrā evening to take Imam Ḥusayn’s head to Kūfah and deliver it to Ibn Ziad.[56]

 

 

 

Researched, complied, and edited by: the news editorial of the website of the office of Grand Ayatollah Makarem Shirazi. www.makarem.ir

 

[1] “The New Mafātīḥ”, p. 599.

[2] “The New Mafātīḥ”, p. 600.

[3] “ʿĀshūrā: the roots, the motives, the events, and the implications”, p. 411.

[4] Shaykh Mufīd. Al-Irshād, pp. 447-488; Tabarī. Tabarī Chronicle. Vol. 4, p. 321 [with minor differences]; Biār al-Anwār, vol. 45, p. 4.

[5] “ʿĀshūrā: the roots, the motives, the events, and the implications”, p. 411.

[6] “ʿĀshūrā: the roots, the motives, the events, and the implications”, p. 412.

[7] “ʿĀshūrā: the roots, the motives, the events, and the implications”, p. 420.

[8] “ʿĀshūrā: the roots, the motives, the events, and the implications”, p. 420.

[9] “ʿĀshūrā: the roots, the motives, the events, and the implications”, p. 420.

[10] “ʿĀshūrā: the roots, the motives, the events, and the implications”, p. 439.

[11] “ʿĀshūrā: the roots, the motives, the events, and the implications”, p. 439.

[12] “ʿĀshūrā: the roots, the motives, the events, and the implications”, p. 440.

[13] Ibn Athīr. Al-Kāmil. Vol 4, p. 64.

[14] “ʿĀshūrā: the roots, the motives, the events, and the implications”, p. 440.

[15] “ʿĀshūrā: the roots, the motives, the events, and the implications”, p. 428.

[16] “ʿĀshūrā: the roots, the motives, the events, and the implications”, p. 429.

[17] “ʿĀshūrā: the roots, the motives, the events, and the implications”, p. 430.

[18] “ʿĀshūrā: the roots, the motives, the events, and the implications”, p. 434.

[19] “ʿĀshūrā: the roots, the motives, the events, and the implications”, p. 435.

[20] “ʿĀshūrā: the roots, the motives, the events, and the implications”, p. 442.

[21] “ʿĀshūrā: the roots, the motives, the events, and the implications”, p. 443.

[22] “ʿĀshūrā: the roots, the motives, the events, and the implications”, p. 444.

[23] “ʿĀshūrā: the roots, the motives, the events, and the implications”, p. 444.

[24] “ʿĀshūrā: the roots, the motives, the events, and the implications”, p.451.

[25] “ʿĀshūrā: the roots, the motives, the events, and the implications”, p. 451.

[26] “ʿĀshūrā: the roots, the motives, the events, and the implications”, p. 454.

[27] “ʿĀshūrā: the roots, the motives, the events, and the implications”, p. 456.

[28] “ʿĀshūrā: the roots, the motives, the events, and the implications”, p. 456.

[29] “ʿĀshūrā: the roots, the motives, the events, and the implications”, p. 457.

[30] For more information refer to: Malhūf [Luhūf], p. 162; Tabari. Tabari Chronicle. Vol. 4, p. 330; Ibṣār al-ʿAyn p. 92; Biḥār al-Anwār, vol. 45, p. 22.

[31] “ʿĀshūrā: the roots, the motives, the events, and the implications”, p. 457.

[32] “ʿĀshūrā: the roots, the motives, the events, and the implications”, p. 500.

[33] “ʿĀshūrā: the roots, the motives, the events, and the implications”, p. 501.

[34] “ʿĀshūrā: the roots, the motives, the events, and the implications”, p. 505.

[35] “ʿĀshūrā: the roots, the motives, the events, and the implications”, p. 506.

[36] “ʿĀshūrā: the roots, the motives, the events, and the implications”, p. 507.

[37] “ʿĀshūrā: the roots, the motives, the events, and the implications”, p. 514.

[38] “ʿĀshūrā: the roots, the motives, the events, and the implications”, p. 520.

[39] “ʿĀshūrā: the roots, the motives, the events, and the implications”, p. 523.

[40] Khwarizmi. Maqtal al-Ḥusayn. Vol. 4, p. 34; Biḥār al-Anwār, vol. 45, pp. 51-52.

[41] “ʿĀshūrā: the roots, the motives, the events, and the implications”, p. 524.

[42] Ibn Shahrāshūb. Al-Manāqib. Vol. 4, p. 120.

[43] “ʿĀshūrā: the roots, the motives, the events, and the implications”, p. 525.

[44] Biḥār al-Anwār, vol. 45, p. 56.

[45] “ʿĀshūrā: the roots, the motives, the events, and the implications”, p. 532.

[46] “ʿĀshūrā: the roots, the motives, the events, and the implications”, p. 533.

[47] “ʿĀshūrā: the roots, the motives, the events, and the implications”, p. 533.

[48] “ʿĀshūrā: the roots, the motives, the events, and the implications”, p. 535.

[49] “ʿĀshūrā: the roots, the motives, the events, and the implications”, p. 537.

[50] Shaykh Mufīd. Al-Irshād. P. 468; Biḥār Al Anwār, vol. 45, p. 61.

[51] “ʿĀshūrā: the roots, the motives, the events, and the implications”, p. 539.

[52] “ʿĀshūrā: the roots, the motives, the events, and the implications”, p. 540.

[53] Muqarram. Maqtal al-Ḥusayn. P. 302.

[54] “ʿĀshūrā: the roots, the motives, the events, and the implications”, p. 542.

[55] “ʿĀshūrā: the roots, the motives, the events, and the implications”, p. 542.

[56] “ʿĀshūrā: the roots, the motives, the events, and the implications”, p. 543.


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