بسم الله الرحمن الرحیم
Rulings Regarding Prayer- Qiyām- part 4
If one falls sick and is unable to perform prayer while standing, but they think they will probably be able to perform their prayer standing by the end of prayer time, based on obligatory precaution they must wait until they manage to perform their prayer in standing position.
However, if one cannot finally perform the entire prayer while standing, they should perform it in standing position as much as they can even by leaning on something like a crutch, but if they cannot keep on standing through the prayer, they should perform the rest of the prayer sitting and if they could not keep on praying while sitting either, they perform the rest of the prayer in lying position.
However, whenever they become able to sit up again or even stand up they must do so, but they must not recite the dhikrs of prayer while moving.
Sometimes, worshippers might be able to perform prayers in standing position, but based on rational probability they consider it likely that standing be detrimental to their body or that it prolongs their illness. In that case they should not perform prayers standing, but rather they can sit down.
Rulings Regarding Prayer- Qiyām- part 3
In previous episodes, we talked about Qiyām, which is one of the obligatory parts of prayer.
However, being obligatory does not mean that one's prayer will become invalid if they are unable to stand for Qiyām.
If one can stand only by leaning on a crutch, against a wall or the like, or if they can stand by keeping their legs apart, then they must perform their prayers in standing position.
Even if one can perform part of the prayer in standing position, it is obligatory for them to stand for performing that part, but they can perform the rest of the prayer in sitting position. However, if standing becomes extremely arduous for them anyway, they can perform the entire prayer while sitting.
Those who are disabled due to spinal cord injury and cannot perform their prayers even while sitting, they must do so in lying position. They must, however, face Qibla even in lying position in the following manner:
In the next episode, I will explain the rest of issues pertaining to performing prayers in sitting and lying positions. (to be continued)
Qiyām- Second Episode
We said that qiyām is one of the obligatory parts of prayer. One of the obligatory acts when standing for qiyām is keeping the body at rest. Therefore, if the body starts moving while reciting takbiratul ihrām or during the qiyām connected to rukū', regardless of whether it is done intentionally or inadvertently, one must complete the prayer and perform it again.
But if one stands for qiyām to recite Surah al-Fatiha and the other surah or Tasbihāt, and inadvertently move their body or legs or bend, their prayer is not invalidated.
However, in such a case, the obligatory precaution demands that one recite the dhikr he has already recited in motion one more time once the body stands still.
The same ruling applies when someone collides with an individual who is performing prayer and causes their body to move, meaning as an obligatory precaution they must repeat the dhikr they have already recited in motion once their boy stands still.
The rest of the rulings pertaining to qiyām will be explained in the next episode.
Rulings Rgarding Prayer
Qiyām, or standing, is one of the obligatory acts of prayer which is better to be performed with humility, stooped shoulders, hands put on the thighs, fingers stretched while touching each other, and an upright posture. While standing, one should look at the place of sajdah. Furthermore, the weight of the body must be in equilibrium, women's legs should be touching each other, and men's legs should be slightly apart.
Qiyām is obligatory in four parts of prayer, two of which are Rukn and the other two are non-Rukn.
Rukn qiyāms are as follows: 1. Qiyām while saying takbiratul ihrām 2. Qiyām prior to Ruku'- which is called "the Qiyām connected to Ruku.
If these two types of qiyām are not performed, whether intentionally or inadvertently, prayer becomes invalid.
Non-Rukn Qiyāms are as follows: 1. Qiyām while reciting Surah al-Fatiha and the other surah 2. Qiyām after Ruku' and before Sajdah.
If these two kinds of Qiyām are not performed intentionally, prayer is invalidated. We will go on to explain the rest of rulings pertaining to Qiyām in next episode.
Rulings Regarding Prayer
In the previous episode, we explained niyyah. Just after niyyah, it is time for takbiratul ihrām, which is considered the first part of prayer. The dhikr "Allahu Akbar" is called takbiratul ihrām, with which prayer commences and which must be recited in correct Arabic, and as it is one the rukn obligatory acts, prayer is invalidated if it is not recited, whether intentionally or inadvertently. Even if someone recites the takbir intentionally twice it invalidates their prayer.
Furthermore, if one is dumb or cannot utter takbir correctly due to some illness or any other reason, they must try to say it in whatever way they can, and if they cannot say takbir at all, the obligatory precaution demands that they indicate it with their hand and with sign language commonly used by the deaf; besides that, they should make it pass through the heart.
When saying takbir, it is recommended for one to raise both their hands up to their ears, but they should recite it at the moment their body is still, meaning that if they recite takbir while bending over, moving or walking, their prayer is invalid.
If one doubts whether or not they have recited takbir correctly they must not recite it again, and must go on with the prayer. Moreover, if one doubts while reciting surah al-Fatiha or the other Surah whether or not they have recited takbiratul Ihrām, their doubt is still unjustified and they must not pay any attention to it. But if one has not yet started to recite al-Fatiha, they should say takbir again.
Rulings regarding Prayer- Intention (Niyyah)
Niyyah means that one should intend at the beginning of prayer to perform it for the sake of Allah, and if they perform a prayer with the intention of ostentation or pretention, not only is their prayer invalid but they have also committed an unlawful sin . Even if one performs a prayer for the sake of Allah and people at the same time, their deed is still invalid and considered a grave sin.
Niyyah, however, does not require particular etiquette or a specific utterance. For one to fulfill their intention properly, they should perform their prayers with the intention of seeking nearness (qurbah) to Allah, or complying with Allah's commands, and it is not even necessary for one to mention their intention or make it pass through the heart; rather, for Niyyah to be fulfilled, it is sufficient that if they were asked as to what they’re doing they could answer that they’re performing, for example, the Ẓuhr prayer for the sake of Allah.
However, in addition to seeking Allah's pleasure, the type of prayer to be performed should also be clear in niyyah. For instance, if it is midday, the individual should specify whether they are performing the Ẓuhr prayer or the ʿAṣr prayer, and it would not suffice to solely have the intention of performing a four-rak'ah prayer. The obligatory precaution even demands that one specify whether the prayer is a missed (Qaḍa) or a punctual (Ada') prayer.
After one has made their intention, they must maintain it up to the end of prayer, meaning that if they are so distracted while performing the prayer that they have no idea what they are doing and which prayer they are performing, they will lose their intention and their prayer will be invalidated.
The Rulings of Ṣalāt: The Obligatory Acts of Ṣalāt
Ṣalāt is a series of acts and recitations which need to be done in a certain order. These acts and recitations are called the obligatory acts of Ṣalāt.
The obligatory acts of Ṣalāt are of two kind: fundamental acts and secondary acts.
The fundamental obligatory acts of Ṣalāt, like Rukūʻ, are the acts or recitations which if one does not perform or perform more or less than prescribed, their prayer will be invalidated regardless of whether it is done inadvertently, intentionally, or because of not knowing the related religious rulings.
But failing to perform the secondary obligatory acts of prayer, like the recitation during Rukūʻ, will invalidate Ṣalāt only when they are done intentionally. However, if they are done more or less than prescribed unintentionally or mistakenly, the Ṣalāt will not be invalidated. Even if one does this because of lack of knowledge regarding the related religious rulings, their Ṣalāt will not be invalid on the condition that they did not neglect trying to learn these rulings.
The fundamental obligatory acts of prayer are the following 5: 1. Niyyah 2. Takbirah al-Ihram 3. Qiyām 4. Rukūʻ 5. Two Sujūds.
The secondary obligatory acts of prayer are the following 6: 1. Qirā’ah 2. The recitation during Rukūʻ and Sujūd 3. Tashahhud 4. Salām 5. Observing the prescribed sequence of acts 6. maintenance of succession.
Rulings Regarding Prayer
Adhān and Iqāmah: Part 2
The Adhān consists of 18 sentences:
“الله اکبر” [meaning “Allah is greater than being described”] recited 4 times.
“اشْهَدُ انْ لا الَهَ إِلَّا اللَّهُ” [meaning “I bear witness that there is no deity but Allah”] recited twice.
“اشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّداً رَسُولُ اللَّهِ” [meaning “I bear witness that Muhammad is the Prophet of Allah”] recited twice.
“حَىَّ عَلَى الصَّلاةِ” [meaning: “Hasten to Prayer”] recited twice.
“حَىَّ عَلَى الْفَلاحِ” [meaning “Hasten to salvation”] recited twice.
“حَىَّ عَلى خَيْرِ الْعَمَلِ” [meaning “Hasten to the best of deeds”] recited twice.
“اللَّهُ اكْبَرُ” recited twice and “لا الَهَ إِلَّا اللَّهُ” recited twice.
The Iqāmah consists of 17 sentences which must be recited in correct Arabic and in the following sequence:
“اللَّهُ اكْبَرُ” recited twice.
“اشْهَدُ انْ لا الَهَ إِلَّا اللَّهُ” recited twice.
“اشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّداً رَسُولُ اللَّهِ” recited twice.
“حَىَّ عَلَى الصَّلاةِ” recited twice.
“حَىَّ عَلَى الْفَلاحِ” recited twice.
“حَىَّ عَلى خَيْرِ الْعَمَلِ” recited twice.
“قَدْ قامَتِ الصَّلاةُ” recited twice.
“اللَّهُ اكْبَرُ” recited twice.
“لا الَهَ إِلَّا اللَّهُ” recited once.
The sentence “اشْهَدُ أَنَّ عَلِيَّاً وَلِىُّ اللَّهِ” which means “I bear witness that Ali is the appointed vicegerent of Allah” is not a part of the Adhān or the Iqāmah. However, it is recommended to recite it after the sentence “اشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّداً رَسُولُ اللَّهِ” in both the Adhān and the Iqāmah with the intention of blessing. But it must be recited in a way that shows it is not a part of them.
Rulings of Prayer
Adhān and Iqāmah: Part 1
Adhan and Iqāmah are two set of supplicatory recitations which are recited before Prayer. It is considered recommended to recite the Adhān and Iqāmah before the obligatory daily Prayers and their Qaḍā Prayers. It has also been emphasized that people at least do not forget to recite the Iqāmah before performing their Prayers.
In addition to their recitation before Prayers, it is a recommended to recite the Aḍān in the right ear of the newborns and the Iqāmah in their left ear on the first day that they are born in order to bless them with these sacred supplications.
The Aḍān needs to be recited in correct Arabic and the following are considered recommended for a person who recites it: 1. To stand on a high place 2. To stand facing the Qiblah 3. Having Wuḍū while reciting it 4. To recite the sentences of the Aḍān in a loud and clear voice 5. To pause between different sentences of the Aḍān and 6. To not say anything else amid the recitation of the Aḍān.
It is also considered recommended for other people who hear the Aḍān to repeat its sentences after the Mu’adhin; likewise, it is recommended for the people who are present in the mosque to repeat the sentences of the Iqamah with the intention of reaching Devine reward.
As for the Iqāmah, it needs to be recited after the Aḍān and it had better be recited 1. In a calm and peaceful state, 2. In a lower voice than the Aḍān, 3. And with shorter pauses in between its sentences than those of the Aḍān.
It is not necessary for everyone in the mosque to recite the Aḍān and the Iqāmah. If a person arrives in the mosque in the middle of the Prayer or even after the Prayer is over but people are still sitting in their rows, precaution demands that they should not recite the Aḍān and the Iqāmah again for their prayer as the Aḍān and the Iqāmah recited at the beginning of the congregational prayer suffices for them.
In the next episode we will see how the Aḍān and the Iqāmah are actually recited.
Rulings of Prayer
The Place of Prayer: Part 2
In the previous episode, two of the necessary conditions for the place of Prayer were explained. The rest of these conditions are as follows:
3. One must be able to perform the obligatory acts of Prayer in the place chosen for performing it. For example it is not permissible to perform Prayer in a car where there is not enough room for one to stand up, perform Rukūʻ, or perform Sajdah unless one has no other choice but to do so.
4. Men must necessarily stand in the front and women in the back while performing Prayer. This means that women must always stand behind men and the place of Sajdah of men must be a little ahead of that of women while performing Prayer. If this rule is not observed, then the Prayer of the person who first began performing theirs is valid and the Prayer of the other person is invalid and they begin their Prayer simultaneously, both of their Prayers will be invalid.
This rule has some exceptions: first, if there is a wall, a screen, or things like that separating the man and the woman, man standing ahead is not necessary.
Second, if the man and the woman are standing at least ten Ḍirāʻs [approximately 5 meters] away from each other.
And third, in great chambers of the holy shrines where there are lots of people performing Prayer and it is extremely difficult to observe this rule, it is not necessary for all men to stand ahead of all women while performing Prayer.
5. The place of one’s forehead at the time of Sajdah must not be higher than the place of one’s feet in a way that it is no longer considered a normal act of Sajdah. The obligatory precaution demands that the place of Sajdah must not be higher than the place of one’s feet more than the breadth of four fingers together approximately 8 cm.
*The Rulings of Prayer _ the place of Prayer: part 2
* The conditions for the place of Prayer: 1. it must be Mubah 2. it must be static
*3. One must be able to perform the obligatory acts of Prayer there
*4. Men must stand ahead of women in Prayer
* 5 meters
* the place of Sajdah must not be higher than the place where one stands for Prayer.