The Rulings of Ṣalāt: The Obligatory Acts of Ṣalāt
Ṣalāt is a series of acts and recitations which need to be done in a certain order. These acts and recitations are called the obligatory acts of Ṣalāt.
The obligatory acts of Ṣalāt are of two kind: fundamental acts and secondary acts.
The fundamental obligatory acts of Ṣalāt, like Rukūʻ, are the acts or recitations which if one does not perform or perform more or less than prescribed, their prayer will be invalidated regardless of whether it is done inadvertently, intentionally, or because of not knowing the related religious rulings.
But failing to perform the secondary obligatory acts of prayer, like the recitation during Rukūʻ, will invalidate Ṣalāt only when they are done intentionally. However, if they are done more or less than prescribed unintentionally or mistakenly, the Ṣalāt will not be invalidated. Even if one does this because of lack of knowledge regarding the related religious rulings, their Ṣalāt will not be invalid on the condition that they did not neglect trying to learn these rulings.
The fundamental obligatory acts of prayer are the following 5: 1. Niyyah 2. Takbirah al-Ihram 3. Qiyām 4. Rukūʻ 5. Two Sujūds.
The secondary obligatory acts of prayer are the following 6: 1. Qirā’ah 2. The recitation during Rukūʻ and Sujūd 3. Tashahhud 4. Salām 5. Observing the prescribed sequence of acts 6. maintenance of succession.